How the French revolution made revolution in military science? Part 3.Alas, wars are not only a system, supply and a ration. These are, first of all, people. And losses.
Not only high-quality, but also quantitative changes in military science began with the French revolution. Unlike the rest, not to the best.
Probably, France passed with the first to a general conscription. Not in addition to other methods of completing, and completely.
made Service life. In 1804 France entered continuous series of wars and service life turned, in fact, into formality. But it is natural! Besides not France began these wars … with
the speech about another Now. The general duty gave the sharp growth of number of army. Until then military leaders did not pursue quantity. Linear tactics in a Prussian ideal is a maneuver by all line of troops in the battlefield; five-transitional store system on theater of war; placement in camps on vacation. Army - separately, the population - separately. Ideally! The governments, but not the people are at war. In army officers and soldiers exist as if in the different planes.
In very big degree the first victories of revolutionary troops are obliged to serious numerical superiority. So new approach is born: to achieve a superiority in strength in a certain place of a battlefield. And here by the way attack by columns had. this novelty Has
and a reverse side. Serious fighting losses are characteristic of wars of 18 century. It is explainable: the extended system of shooters, dense counter fire and rather slow measured approach. At the same time troops kept fighting capacity at considerable losses: sometimes to 50%. It is result of a mushtra and cast-iron discipline.
Revolutionary armies at their large number and very often personal motivation of soldiers seldom lost more than 10% thanks to a scattered system. The soldiers who are not constrained by dense construction simply receded or took cover.
Everything changed with arrival of Napoleon who demanded approach. The troops rallied in a column were capable to resolute blow; strategically Bonaparte also seeks for decisive battle. Exactly and only it is considered now the only way to achieve a victory.
I it contradicts former strategy again. Avoiding big losses, commanders not really sought for collision. Frederick the Great at whom Europe studied was also skilled manoeuvrer. the special counter was to compel the opponent to recede maneuver on theater of war, threat to communications.
Napoleon considerably shifted focus. Losses somehow not really frightened him … And they increased even in comparison not with revolutionary wars, but also with wars of the last century.
In 18 century normal army - several tens of thousands; battle is developed on 2 - 3 km. spaces also lasts 1 - 2 hour. Large battles of a Napoleonic era hours-long, are capable to continue several days and to cover big spaces.
at Borodino participated In fight approximately on 130 thousand from each party. Losses estimate very much differently, but it and is not so important. And by the minimum assessment they are great: somewhere on 30 - 35 thousand from each party.
I it not the most mass battle.
All estimates very approximate! There is no exact statistics, in losses can write down both captured, and transferred to the reserve (especially if war lasted for years).
Friedrich 2 estimated losses of Prussia in Seven years` war at 180 thousand. Allegedly, this total number of the died soldiers. Other most active participant of war - Austria, 140 thousand. The general fighting losses of Europe, by one of estimates - 642 thousand
In 7 years of revolutionary wars (1791 - 1798) France, by one of estimates, lost about 450 thousand the killed. And as much - opponents. There are also many big figures. there is no
On Napoleonic wars exact data. Unless on large battles - but also there not all is also always specified. I met an assessment in 900 thousand dead, fighting losses. 680 of them - loss by the killed. The others - the dead from wounds, here even more conditional estimations. These are lethal military losses, without wounded. And at that time serious wound quite could conduct to a mutilation.
I without civil. In 18 century still there was an idea that the governments and armies, but not the population are at war. That wars should not cause serious damage to economy, first of all peasants. But already in Seven years` war of it not all adhered … Distracting from a subject, I will tell: Prussian and Russian troops behaved with the population correctly (as far as it in general is possible in the war). What not to tell about the Austrians. Revolution made by
war national. In any case, the army was formed of the population, after service of soldiers came back. And in the war - the army considerably contains the population, a billeting of army - at the population. And the changes in views which led to revolution and following from it concerned all. The national consciousness was formed.
I of course, even peacefully going through the country (especially others, but also it could not but concern the) mass armies did not improve an economic situation. Especially battles, approaches - retreats of mass armies could not but just ruin the district. we Will remember
at least 1812.
I that is characteristic, situation changed not to the best since then.