Rus Articles Journal

Pages of the Russian history. What icon helped Ivan the Terrible to take Kazan?

In 1547-1552 Ivan IV went to be at war Kazan three times. The two first a campaign were unsuccessful, but the third came to the end with successful storm of the Kremlin and capture of the Kazan khan.

Believers claim that the victory was ensured by the list taken by Ivan Vasilyevich in a campaign from a miracle icon of Nikola Tulsky, a marvelous image found in Tula at the beginning of the 16th century. And therefore at all not incidentally the church “Saint Nikolay became the first Orthodox church in Muslim Kazan, to an izha it is called Tulsky“. After capture of Kazan the temple for the sake of Nikola Tulsky appeared also in Moscow.

According to the legend, the Prelate Nikolay going on the Russian land noticed that in Tula it “is loved most of all“, and became “to this city protection“. The image of the Saint found, digging a kitchen garden in the Tula Zarechie, the visitor from Dnieper the Cossack by the name of Ermolai. In memory of this find at the city Kremlin the wooden temple of Nikola Tulsky which was especially fallen in love to the local Cossacks was also built.

The Prelate Nikolay esteemed by citizens helped not only to take Kazan, but also to beat off in the same 1552 attack on Tula of the Crimean khan Devlet - Girey who appeared under the city soon after the collecting army appointed by Ivan the Terrible in Kolomna for the third Kazan campaign. Krymchaks, probably, knew that to Ivan Vasilyevich almost all Tula garrison went. Devlet - the Weight wanted to take quickly Tula and to move further to Moscow. But prevented to come true to these plans one hundred soldiers which remained in Tula under command of the voivode Grigory Ivanovich Temkin - Rostov, the citizens who ran together to the Kremlin and, of course, Nikola Tulsky: having caught sight of the enemy, suitable to fortress, citizens bypassed the Kremlin walls religious procession led by Nikola Tulsky`s icon, asking the Saint about protection.

Received the first news of emergence near Tula of seven-thousandth Tatar group Ivan IV in Kolomna. He sent to revenue to the city quite significant forces at once. Next day the next messenger reported that to much the Crimean khan and that “a dress with them approached Tula and many Tursky`s yanychena“. Ivan Vasilyevich had dinner at this time. Uslysha disturbing news, he interrupted a feast and, “not a soversha of a table“, went to church, and to voivodes ordered to build army for a campaign. After church service went to a way. Near Kashira to them the third messenger who reported met: Devlet - the Weight came with the son, the army at them is big, in it both Krymchaks, and Turks, and Janissars.

Morning of the same day the enemy struck the Kremlin from guns “fiery yadra“, the fires began. Storm began a trace. Sluzhily people among besieged there was a little, but “the help vsesilnago God ogn in the city of an ugasish and a shred with impious bishasya, a yak and from a hail of an otbish“. Next morning storm was resumed with assistance of guns. At this time citizens saw clubs of dust on the road from Kashira - that advance parties of Ivan the Terrible approached. Noticed the host going to Tula and enemies, weakened an impact, and then at all began to recede. Then the encouraged citizens suited a sortie: “And ustremishasya vs on bezbozhnyya and an izydosha from a hail not tokmo voivodes and soldiers and vs the husband and wives to a vospriyemsha male bravery and young children and many Tatars under a hail of a poba and … and a dress gun and kernels and arrows and a potion much, but the ruin gradny brought a vzyasha of a pravoslavniya“.

The appeared in time voivodes were let to pursue the Crimean khan. Having caught up with the running enemy on the river Shivoroni, the Russian groups completed defeat: “The tsar ran and pometat carts and many cut velbluda, and pometat other many live“.

Tula met by bell-ringing the entry into Ivan the Terrible`s city with the main army. He long prayed before image of Nikola Tulsky, and then wished to take an icon with himself to Kazan. Citizens, however, despite all fear of Ivan Vasilyevich, refused to it at all, and it was necessary to be satisfied to the tsar with skillfully executed copy.

The miracles connected with image of Nikola Tulsky on that did not end. In 1579 near its Kazan temple there was a fire. Fire destroyed the house of a Sagittarius of Danila Onuchin. On the ashes his daughter Matrona found the icon of the Mother of God called Kazan. The priest Ermolai coming, it seems, from Cossacks - future patriarch Germogen also participated in its finding. We know about it a little, but in Tula there is a version: this is that Ermolai that found Nikola Tulsky`s icon.

Such opportunity was allowed by the Tula spiritual writer, the historian and the archeologist Nikolay Troitsky (1851-1920). We are obliged to Nikolay Ivanovich also by the photo from the original of an icon which - alas - disappeared from the Tula temple in the first postrevolutionary years. Its image differs from traditional images of the Prelate Nikolay. In the photo it costs in growth, also the wide omophorion with large four-pointed crosses is dressed in a krestchaty phelonion over a stole. Nikola Tulsky holds in the left hand on a payment the code of the Gospel, and right blesses before a breast. On each side its figures at the level of the head - big round medallions with Christ and the Mother of God, on the right on fields - a small figure of the apostle Simon, allegedly soimenny to the customer of an icon …

With loss of an icon the tradition of honoring of an image of the Prelate Nikolay in Tula was interrupted for several decades, but was not forgotten. In the new millennium annually on July 5 in Nikola`s temple - on - Rzhavtsa where there is a list of a wonder-working image, the Divine liturgy and religious procession are made. Simple citizens, Cossacks and military - far descendants of those who by means of Nikola Tulsky protected a century ago the hometown from the enemy participate in them.