Travel to Chile. How Cape Horn looks?“The old cannibal“, “the Mouth of the Devil“ - as soon as seamen did not call a severe and remote island on the end of South America. But despite all difficulties and dangers, seamen aspired there as exactly there was the shortest way from Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Small Chilean base and a sculpture of eternally soaring albatross - a monument to thousands of seamen who died there, that`s all, that can be seen, floating by.
homo sapiens, the homo sapiens is surprisingly arranged. Always pulls it novel, unexpected, unusual. An era of great geographical discoveries long ago in the past, living long before us left us the right to open for itself what they for all opened for a long time. Here people also go that to a pole, not very well what - Northern, Southern or Inaccessibility, to “the Mouth of the Devil“ from time immemorial it is considered which most that on there is “end of the earth“, namely the southernmost tip of Tierra Del Fuego - Cape Horn.
We had an invincible desire too though from a distance to look on this once at almost inaccessible point on the Earth`s surface. Now - that it is not difficult at all. In the afternoon in air, still a couple of hours on standing in traffic jams, and here it lies alongside - the big snow-white cruise liner. Well, and the trick is farther. Several days of a rassekaniye of a boundless smooth surface of the Atlantic Ocean - and here we, having conveniently settled down in chairs on the glazed part of a main deck, we observe how the small island slowly approaches us. Why not on open part of the deck, you ask. Yes just there so strong wind and cold that long even in warm clothes you will not stay.
- Really it is actually that island the Horn with the legendary cape 417 meters high of the same name? - mentally I wonder.
As if in reply, the same minute someone invisible, got into a loudspeaker loud-hailer, begins to tell surprising and in many respects tragic history of this place. And it is unknown from where the undertaken echo repeats and repeats the passed dates and names of the left people long ago long ago, and before eyes there is a ship shadow with the sails inflated so that it seems, they here - here will burst... Or perhaps will flap in the sky a fragile small boat and will carry away it far away from this disastrous place. Or will ship it in the abyss of waters as it already happened to other ships of its squadron. And on the captain`s bridge there is a shadow of the courageous bearded person, captain Drake who with live thirst of knowledge unknown observes how by it both this island, and the cape on its South side rushes.
- Really the Lord pardoned, and we appeared on other side of the earth? - as if I hear his words and I see how it raises in gratitude to God of a hand.
Then did not even come to its mind attentively to consider and remember this island which became subsequently dream of all seamen going to plow the ocean in a pursuit of imaginary happiness with real wealth or unknown death far from the darling earth.
… And Drake reached Cape Horn,
I England became the empire.
Then our stronghold was erected from waters,
of Unknown waters, unprecedented waves.
I England became the Empire! When the singer of the great British Empire Rudyard Kipling wrote
these lines, it was already absolutely clear that only after the captain Drake opened this shortest way for that time from the ocean to the ocean, Britain could turn into “the empress of the seas“ and execute the dream - “to rule the seas“.
Passed long 38 years while in 1616 to representatives of other great sea power - Holland, it was succeeded to repeat Drake`s route. Here they looked around already more attentively and properly considered an island with the cape.
- Let he is called the Horn as a reminder on the city where I once was in this world and where, God grant, I will be able to return in old age, - the captain Willem Skhouten who was from the small Dutch town of Hoorna said. By the way, on the South American dialect of Spanish this name sounds as Kabo - - Ornos.
And again there were years. Around the cape in increasing frequency there passed the ships, but on the island nobody risked to land until it was made by participants of the English expedition by the ship “Beagle“ which part also Charles Darwin was. There was it in 1831. Expedition carried out the round-the-world travel which lasted five years. Research of islands and passages of the most unfriendly region of the World Ocean in the Southern hemisphere - Antarctic was its main objective.
Of course, so far the island the Horn is studied thoroughly, and conclusions of all researchers are almost identical: it is one of the most inhospitable places in the world. There the worst climate on the planet: constant rains, winds, hurricanes and frosts. Besides, if not a rank of the most southern point of Earth, nobody would even notice it, so it is small.
What man-made appeared on Cape Horn for last centuries from the moment of its opening? First of all the speech can go, certainly, about the well-known beacon which saved a set of lives in the past. The beacon is served by the team consisting of several people. Besides, there is voyenno - the sea Chile base with residential and subsidiary buildings, and also a Catholic chapel. Near base there is a monument - a sculpture of eternally soaring albatross as a reminder on thousands of seamen who died in unsuccessful attempts to round Cape Horn.
This monument was established in 1992 by members of the Brotherhood of Captains of Cape Horn. The brotherhood arose in 1987, all captains of sailing vessels which managed to pass from Silent in Atlantic oceans or on the contrary enter it, bending around at the same time Cape Horn. In 2010 the famous Russian traveler Fedor Konyukhov during the single global cruise established a wooden orthodox bow cross on the island. UNESCO in 2005 declared Cape Horn Natural Heritage of Mankind. From now on any economic activity able to do harm to environment, on the island is forbidden.
Now little curious information.
Actually Cape Horn at all not the most southern point of South America. The matter is that in one hundred kilometers from it on Hugo - the West there are Diego`s islands - Ramirez. And so the small island of Agil which is their part is also the most southern point and Chile, and parts of the world. And the most southern continental point the cape Frouard on the peninsula Bransuik located in the territory of Chile is considered.
And still. Geographical coordinates of Cape Horn 55 º 59` southern latitude while Moscow is located on 55 º a northern latitude, and Barnaul with Irkutsk around 52 º northern latitude. Cape Horn has average temperature of the coldest month of July about 2 º With, precisely as in Sevastopol in January, but summer days on the island the Horn seldom happens slightly higher than 8 º With, as at us, for example, in the mouth of Pechora.
“Sedov“ during one global cruise seven times passed the Russian educational sailing bark by Cape Horn.