Rus Articles Journal

Magellan`s passage. How many was at it names?

Squadron of Ferdinand Magellan slowly went along coast of South America in search of the shortest way to India. The whole gale drove vessels into a small bay in which there was a treasured pass. The passage of All Saints - Magellan called it, the Patagonian passage - appears it in the diary of the chronicler of that expedition. So how many names this passage bearing today a name of his pioneer had?

On November 1, 1520 forever became history of Great Geographical discoveries. After a year of swimming, having left behind a stern more than two thousand miles, in search of the treasured passage allowing to pass from the Atlantic Ocean on other side of South America, Magellan`s ships got to the whole gale which brought them in the small bay surrounded from all directions with unapproachable rocks.

The seafarers who decided already that they are not fated to get out live of this prison cell the raging sea began and to make up for waves which directed vessels directly to rocks in a bay, saw the small twisting pass reminding the river, but not the sea passage at the end of a bay. Having passed on it several hundreds of meters, vessels appeared in a small bay from where they adjusted by a strong fair wind floated further. One more bay, and here, at last, they appeared in wide water space, on the horizon continuation of the pass conducting deep into sushi was seen. In a bay the small current towards the ocean which the ships left quite recently was noted.

So it, next big La river of the Payment? But salinity of water behind a board gave the answer - required pass is found.

“Strange, fantastic it, the show when four ships for the first time in the history of mankind slowly and silently entered the silent, gloomy passage where the person from time immemorial did not get was right“ . Stefan Zweig “Magellan`s Feat“.

According to the legend, in honor of a Catholic holiday which was celebrated that day Magellan, by the right of the pioneer, gave the passage the beautiful name - the passage of All Saints. At the same time in the diary of the historian of expedition Pigafetta the passage appears as Patagonian, recently Magellan quite so called the surrounding area. And here other participant of the same expedition remembered that the passage was called Victoria as the first the ship “Victoria“ entered it.

As it is necessary to call it? Point in this confusion the king of Spain and in combination the emperor of the Sacred Roman Empire Charles V who enjoined to call him in honor of the pioneer Magellan`s passage put its Majesty.

Swimming continued 28 more days, so far, at last, before seamen the quiet water smooth surface called by Ferdinand Magellan the Pacific Ocean did not open. On memoirs, the severe commodore shed a few tears for pleasure that the desired passage was safely passed. He even named Desired the cape acting to the ocean at the end of the passage.

The shortest and safe way from Europe to Asia was so found. It is possible to call this route safe only in comparison with swimming around Africa or passing through mad Drake Strait nicknamed a cemetery of the ships. Actually and the Strait of Magellan represents the sea road, very difficult and dangerous to travelers. The matter is that there the most unpredictable winds, and also the strong current forced to it from the Pacific Ocean blow. Here also imagine that captains and skippers of the slow sailing vessels which got at full calm (and there it continually happens) to the rough river bearing the ship directly on rocks felt. And there is a lot of such captains, not for nothing many years Magellan was the only seafarer who did not lose when passing the passage not only any ship, but also any seaman.

What is this passage? Its total length of 575 kilometers that does it to one of the most extended navigable passages in the world. In the bottleneck its width of everything 3,5 kilometers with the smallest depth of a waterway of 20 meters and the speed of a current to 25 km/h. In the east it begins between two capes: - Las - Virgenes, gave such name to him Magellan in part of Sacred Virginia whose holiday was in day of its opening, and Katharine Poynt`s cape. For this reason it could not be also seen from Magellan`s ships, and only the happy occurence in the form of a storm brought sailing vessels there. East part has the extent of 320 kilometers and consists their three consistently located bays connected by two passages. Coast are desert and lifeless. The western or rather southern part of the passage as it turns on the South, overgrew the wood. Coast there high, abrupt, cut up by fjords. Sometimes glaciers creep up to the coast. Air on all extent of the passage crude and cold. Both coast are in the territory of Chile.

From the moment of opening and up to the beginning of navigation through the Panama Canal (in 1914) the Strait of Magellan was in the most reliable and safe way from Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. And everything would be farther in general remarkably, there were steamships to which wind and a cross-current somehow to “lamp“, but here dug the channel, and everything became far not so iridescent. Now, of course, the movement on the passage is carried out too. Why to stand in a queue and to pay considerable money to Americans, the deception which took a narrow strip of the earth on Isthmus of Panama and dug there the channel, especially, if to float - that is necessary on the continent South. But all the same volumes of transportations through the passage considerably decreased.

But to the tourist ships there was an expanse. Nobody is confused nearby, the horizon does not close, the exhausts does not cut the cheese. And to look there is on what. Islands in the passage are populated with sea lions and Magellanic penguins at whom posterity appears at the height of a tourist season, and during its peak humpback whales, all with the same purpose - to remove posterity come into the passage.

... Here and we passed that treasured way. Passed - it, of course, is only told, actually we were taken on the passage, and we looked at all its magnificence from a main deck. And here on the city of Punta - Arenas, to the main port located in the passage were acquired in plenty. And saw enough of penguins thoroughly, and admired sea lions. The promised whales were only not seen. But nothing can be done with it, probably, they walked at this time somewhere in other place.