Rhesus factor - conflict pregnancy: without panic!
As all know since immemorial school times, “Rhesus factor“ is such monkey. In blood at the first found certain “factor“ which in her honor and was called in it.
the Rhesus factor - a factor: what the animal is?same
from our readers who at school in biology had a firm five and at mother on mezzanines still store the certificate of honor from a meeting of young fans of anatomy, know that this “factor“ actually represents the proteins of the Rhesus factor system located on a surface of erythrocytes. And some people on erythrocytes have these proteins, and at others - at all are absent.
Existence or absence the Rhesus factor - a factor in erythrocytes of people causes accessory them to a Rhesus factor - positive or a Rhesus factor - negative group. It is established that 86% of people of Caucasian (“white“) race possess positive a Rhesus factor - a factor, and 14% - negative.by Antigena`s
of system a Rhesus factor develop at a fruit, since
When the Rhesus factor - the conflict arises?
the Rhesus factor - the conflict can arise during pregnancy if the Rhesus factor - a factor of mother does not coincide about a Rhesus factor - a fruit factor. In a case when the carrier positive the Rhesus factor - a factor is the kid, probability of emergence the Rhesus factor - the conflict is much higher, than at a reverse situation, and its consequences are much more serious. Therefore most often if it is about a Rhesus factor - conflict pregnancy, the combination “a Rhesus factor - negative mother + a Rhesus factor - the positive kid“ is meant.
Such combination arises approximately in 75% percent of cases when mother - a Rhesus factor - is negative, the father - a Rhesus factor - is positive (for our especially curious readers - short digression to genetics: the genotype which is responsible for a positive father`s Rhesus factor - a factor, can be homozygous or heterozygotic. In case of homozygosity a Rhesus factor - the father`s factor future kid surely will be a Rhesus factor - positive, in an opposite case - chances to give birth to the “positive“ and “negative“ kid are equal).
B than danger a Rhesus factor - incompatible pregnancy? The matter is that if a Rhesus factor - the negative person will get to blood a Rhesus factor - positive erythrocytes, the organism will apprehend them as something alien, and will begin to develop the antibodies destroying “strangers“. And if for any reasons in blood of mother such antibodies appear, serious danger will begin to threaten future child.
Having got through a placenta to blood to the child, antibodies begin to destroy its erythrocytes. It is simple to present all gravity of consequences of it: all of us from a school bench know: the most important function of erythrocytes - to transport oxygen to bodies and fabrics. The pathological condition of a fruit resulting from hit in its blood a Rhesus factor - antibodies, doctors call a hemolytic illness. Let`s not stop on detailed descriptions of symptoms and outcomes of this illness - I believe, and the scale of consequences caused by catastrophic shortage of oxygen moreover and in only the formed organism is so approximately clear!But actually at all it is optional
that at a Rhesus factor - incompatible pregnancy the Rhesus factor - the conflict of mother and a fruit will develop. Very often during such pregnancy of an antibody or absolutely are absent in blood, or their quantity so is not enough that does not constitute serious danger to the child.
What factors can provoke development of antibodies in an organism of future mother?
- Hit of blood of the kid in mother`s blood-groove. It can occur at childbirth, abortion or a spontaneous abortion, when carrying out an amniotsentez (the research conducted by introduction of a long thin needle through a belly wall in a uterus), etc. Besides, hit of alien erythrocytes can happen vnutriutrobno through a placenta. Their penetration into a maternal blood-groove is promoted by the infectious factors increasing permeability of a placenta, small injuries, hemorrhages and other damages of a placenta. a Rhesus factor - the negative woman were already developed by
- of the Antibody in blood once before pregnancy as a result of, for example, blood transfusion without taking into account a Rhesus factor - compatibility (even if at early age). - to positive erythrocytes are formed by
- In very small percent of cases of an antibody to a Rhesus factor in an organism of the pregnant woman without any visible reasons.
After there was the first meeting of an organism with alien erythrocytes, in blood of the woman remain “memory cages“ which at the subsequent collisions with “enemy“ blood cells will organize fast development of antibodies. For this reason the probability a Rhesus factor - the conflict during the first pregnancy is rather low (about 10%), but if not to take certain measures of prevention, then at the subsequent pregnancies the probability of problems significantly increases as at the time of delivery the Rhesus factor - the positive child occurs contact with incompatible blood.
What to do?
So, at will of destinies it turned out so that if to trust all aforesaid, you have a probability a Rhesus factor - conflict pregnancy. What action plan?to
In - the first, to you it is necessary to approach pregnancy planning very carefully. The matter is that for you it is very important to avoid cases of “collision“ about a Rhesus factor - incompatible blood (and it can occur, in particular, at abortion or an abortion if the fruit was a Rhesus factor - positive). In such cases it is necessary to inject as soon as possible the special drug preventing development a Rhesus factor - antibodies.
Thus, any interruption of pregnancy for you is connected with very big risk. If antibodies were developed already once, they will be developed again and again at everyone a Rhesus factor - incompatible pregnancy, creating serious threat to health of the little man.
After pregnancy approach to you needs to be registered in a maternity welfare unit as soon as possible, on the first reception having concentrated attention of the gynecologist on this extremely important feature of the pregnancy. The foremost security measure in this case is a regular blood testing for existence of antibodies during the entire period of pregnancy (till 32 weeks - once a month, from 32 to 35 weeks - 2 times a month, and then weekly).If everything goes
well and antibodies in blood of future mummy are not found, on
At critical increase of a caption of antibodies. Doctors will trace:
- to the Loudspeaker of a caption of antibodies in blood of future mother;
- Data of ultrasonography: increase in the sizes of a liver of a fruit, placenta thickening, emergence of abundance of water and liquid in a pericardium and an abdominal cavity of a fruit;
- This amniotsenteza (research of amniotic waters) or kordotsentez (research of an umbilical blood).
to a state full-term, then planned Cesarean section is carried out. If is not present - it is necessary to resort to pre-natal blood transfusion. Childbirth in situations when the Rhesus factor - the conflict arose and progresses, most often occur through Cesarean section since it is necessary to isolate the baby from a source of pernicious antibodies as soon as possible.
I, of course, after the birth of the kid in case pregnancy took place without development of antibodies and a Rhesus factor - the factor of the child is positive, during
... and further?
If in the first a Rhesus factor - incompatible pregnancy of a problem of development of antibodies you was passed, the injection of immunoglobulin is entered in time, then the following pregnancy for you initially will differ in nothing from the first, i.e. the probability of development a Rhesus factor - the conflict will still remain at the level of 10%. > But it is anyway important to p to remember
: the fact of an opportunity in itself a Rhesus factor - the conflict and even existence of antibodies in blood is not contraindications to pregnancy and especially not a reason for its interruption. Just such pregnancy demands much more responsible and attentive relation to itself. Try to find the competent expert to whom you completely trust, and accurately implement all his recommendations.
So, in this article we in detail considered the blood conflict when mother with negative a Rhesus factor - a factor is pregnant a Rhesus factor - the positive child. It is the most widespread and dangerous case of the conflict, however you should not forget that the conflicts are possible not only at a Rhesus factor - factorial, but also at group incompatibility of blood of mother and a fruit. Therefore, preparing for conception and being registered on pregnancy in a maternity welfare unit, do not refuse the corresponding analyses and ask the doctor to comment - whether there is no danger of the conflict in your concrete situation. Mother`s knowledge and the correct supervision of “conflict“ pregnancy will allow your kid to be born healthy, and to you further to have a lot more kids!