How to make a visit of the museum pleasant and useful. Part 2
Any picture can get a response in soul of the child. Often think that children better perceive abstract art (“similar to children`s drawing“) or that you should not show them a picture with an unfamiliar plot. Anything similar.
What to show to children of different ageit is senseless to Establish to
any clear boundary here. Any picture can get a response in soul of the child. Often think that children better perceive abstract art (“similar to children`s drawing“) or that you should not show them a picture with an unfamiliar plot. Anything similar. Try - and will surprise you as far as children are susceptible to painting. They live in the world of images and at the unconscious level acquire the laws of visual perception going from ancient tradition of painting. Rely on this reality, do not speak too sharply of pictures which are pleasant to them, and do not impose them those which are pleasant to you.the Councils offered below will help you to choose
, where to go and what to watch. We will remind, than children most often are interested, and we will clear some disputed issues. Our recommendations should not be perceived as the instruction at all. When the child grew up already enough to consider pictures in the book, he is capable to perceive painting at the level and to derive from it pleasure. But to listen to explanations of the adult, he has to possess a certain lexicon which is usually formed by five years. This age is also chosen as initial.
From 5 to 7. What attracts children at this age:
- Warm, bright colors. The statistics demonstrates that kids give preference to red.
- Various forms and contrast colors, without shades (as in the designer of “Lego“),
- the Seeming (illusory) tridimentionality of the image which looks “as the present“. Exact reproduction of texture of material (fabric, hair, furs, etc.) when there is a wish not only to see but also to touch
- of the Picture on which people are represented animal or easily recognizable elements of a landscape - the house, the field, a garden, the village, the seashore, etc. (therefore children like impressionists).
- of the Picture, showing people in the movement or in the certain poses (sleeping, running, diving, falling, dancing etc.).
- Open transfer of emotions in painting of any eras (laughter, crying, tenderness, anger, surprise, etc.) .
- Simple compositions: one central figure and minimum of minor elements.
- Fine details: their kids notice first of all.
Connection with everyday life. Children of this age love pictures in which scenes, the objects, actions and gestures familiar to them from everyday life are represented. One child will notice the woman who brushes the hair and bends in accuracy as his mother, or the man who works at a table, having been absorbed in papers just as his father. And the attention of other kid will be drawn by a red blanket on Van Gogh`s cloth because it is similar to that which is at his place.
Motive reaction. Small children perceive a picture not only eyes. It causes in them motive reaction. Often the child mimic imitates what was seen and can “play“ literally a picture by means of gesticulation. Later he will manage to find also words to give the arisen thoughts and feelings. Dynamic, expressive pictures and sculptures use therefore at kids special success.
Freedom of imagination. Children like “to support“ the seen picture with some right there thought-up suitable history: “She, likely, cries because...“, “Perhaps earlier he made so and so and therefore...“ . Considering abstract painting, color and a form they usually associate with familiar real objects: a yellow spot - with the sun or the moon, and something curve and long - with a snake or banana. Dabs green which mean nothing to you for children turn into blades or into young frogs. So kids “appropriate“ everything that they see. The modern art (painting, a sculpture, installations), giving a big scope of the imagination, causes in them curiosity. Even the most unexpected materials (branches, plastic fragments, stones and other garbage) which modern artists use can awaken and force to work children`s imagination.Not only to watch
- to say! No matter, at what the child looks - his interest can always be stirred by means of the simple questions inviting to dialogue, for example: “Of what you think now?“, “What you feel?“, “You remember something similar?“, “And you it does not seem?“ . Let the child learn to distinguish such concepts as light - dark, heavy - a lung, transparent - opaque, thick - thin, accurate - indistinct. Having acquired these things on the example of one picture, he will be able easier to understand others. A secret of the successful beginning - to accustom to watch children attentively, to explain to them that each picture possesses the special atmosphere and to give vent to children`s imagination.
of the Book or museum? Kids are tired by circulation on the museums and galleries: the children`s attention is unstable. But if they like to examine albums with reproductions, this occupation can be turned into game, not always possible in the museum. For a start just it is very important to look through the book together; let it will become a habit as the fairy tale for the night. If you catch any concrete preferences, it makes sense to go to the museum that the child saw the fallen in love thing “on - pravdashny“. He will be glad!
From 8 to 10. What is pleasant to children at this age:Bright and contrast painting attracts with
- them as well as kids.
- of the Picture about which it is possible to tell something - either in connection with a plot, or with the artist`s life.
- Recognizable types: good - bad, strong - weak. Such characters are widespread in movies, animated films, comics, video games and are well familiar to children.
- of Battle and other types of opposition when the good wins victory over evil, weaker over stronger (indispensable condition).
- of the Picture which make laugh and amuse (or something is derided).
- of the Picture from which it becomes terrible.
- of the Figure of a strange look similar on monsters.
- of the Picture, showing everyday life during different historical eras.
At this age children long stand idle before a picture, as if “enter“ it. The landscape is often perceived as the invitation to travel. Children mentally join in action - go on the mountains and valleys, get to a storm, float by the ships, battle against monsters... The landscape stimulates love to adventures.do not forget
Visual associations. The world of children`s visions not always differs in high esthetic level, but favourite characters usually men of courage and athletes - heroes of movies, video games, animated cartoons, comics. Remember familiar heroes, telling children about fight of the good and evil: here you will be helped also by “Star wars“, and “Spiderman“. Children will repeatedly face idea of opposition of the good and evil in works of painting and a sculpture on mythological or biblical scenes.
Other civilizations. Adventures in an exotic situation always seem especially attractive therefore in movies and video games for children action often happens in such countries as Ancient China, Egypt, the country of Inca etc. Early spectator impressions - a good basis in order that children became interested in art of the respective countries and eras.
Detailed acquaintance to the museum. It should be begun at this age. The child with pleasure will go in already familiar - or new - the museum with in advance definite purpose: to see there something especially interesting. >
it is important to p to obtain information independently. It is very important that children read plates (“label“) at each picture, learned a name of the author, the name of work, year of its creation, etc. First they will read everything and can take accession number for date of birth of the artist, but quickly in everything will deal with your help. It is much more interesting to children to learn about a picture, than to listen to the same from adults. In addition it gives them so desired feeling of independence.As it is made by
? Children of this age group vividly are interested in materials and technology of art. They especially like pictures, sculptures or installations in which it is possible to distinguish brush dabs, traces from operation of scissors, fingerprints begin to flow, spots etc. Here they are helped by own experience - drawing lessons with initial classes or in kindergarten. At this age it is time to accustom children to consider a picture, distracting from a plot and to encourage their interest in the process of work, to technology of painting, both ancient, and modern. In the hall there can be a professional artist who writes the copy of some museum picture: observe it (only do not prevent to work). If there is opportunity, descend with the child in a workshop to the lithographer, the ceramist, a gobelenshchik. Observe also as restore facades of buildings or stained-glass windows.
From 11 to 13. What interests children at this age:
- Identity of the author and main stages of his biography.
- picture History: why it was created at some point the artist`s lives.
- As the picture - for example as by means of prospect illusion of depth is reached is under construction. How the artist or the sculptor expresses to
- the feelings and thoughts. For example, as the impression of the movement is reached though figures are not mobile. As strength of the personality is transferred in a portrait and why there is a feeling of harmony. As the artist treats reality, striving for the greatest expressiveness.
- What is the time left on creation of a picture.
- Symbols which value needs to be understood before it is possible to comprehend the hidden meaning of work. (Why in a picture the pigeon is represented? What is symbolized by the lit candle?)
- Comparison of works of the same author. Fine material self-portraits, for example for this purpose give Rembrandt, Van Gogh, Gauguin. It is possible to learn to define characteristic features of the different periods in creativity of the author by comparison.
- Comparison of pictures of the different artists representing identical or close plots. (In what similarity? In what distinction?)
- Communication of a picture and artist with historical events. Here it is already possible to attract a context - material from the school program for literature and history. It will allow to find parallels.
- How much is picture.
less free time. Partly it is connected with the increasing school loading. It is more important to that to define accurately about what you want to acquaint with the child that it did not seem to him as if he wastes time or, on the contrary, is forced to perform excess, additional tasks.
Children lose a spontaneity. They already know a lot of things and without hesitation give an assessment to the fact that see (“It silly!“, “It is ugly!“, “In what here sense?“). To tell the child:“ You are wrong“ it is impossible - it is the deadlock. It is better to take an open position - to take an interest in his opinion, to share own knowledge, to ask questions to itself and to compare your views. Then the child will understand that he did not make out something important, and will look another time more attentively.
of the Subject which confuse them. At this age of children the image of human nakedness begins to confuse. As a nudity - the integral accessory of art throughout all its history, it would be silly and senseless to avoid this subject. It is better to concentrate attention on sense of a picture, and at the same time to talk about skill in transfer of a naked body, about symbolical communication of nakedness with truth, about evolution of human ideas of beauty of a constitution. It is possible to remember a role of thorough knowledge of anatomy, to stop on how the artist reports the invoice of skin etc.
of Association with advertizing. Children of this age perfectly know widespread images and willingly address them. Advertizing is often connected with art history - explain to the child that it is not casual, and help it “to identify“ the works beaten in advertizing. If in advertizing the picture or a detail of a picture is used, you descend with the child in the museum and show it the original - or, at least, a good reproduction. In a logo of the international recruitment agency Manpower (entered in a circle of the letter “about“ of people with ideal proportions of a body) the well-known drawing of Leonardo da Vinci is used. The logo of cosmetic firm L “is obviously prompted to Oreal Studio Line by composition in the spirit of Mondrian. Pay attention to how color and the choice of a pose correspond in TV advertizing of goods, fashions etc. to symbolics, long since inherent painting.
Why such picture is necessary? Key question. Help the child to find with a picture something escaped from his attention: thereby in his eyes existence of this picture will be justified. Moreover, there will be an interest in how the identity of the author is reflected in work. For example, romantic etudes of the clouds floating on the sky, most likely, will leave children indifferent. But if you explain to them that you in the 19th century of a cloud symbolized instability of human feelings (they hide the sun, gather before a storm, foretell a thunder-storm), it will give food to children`s imagination.
Interest in a certain artist. History of arts for children at this age area too general, too abstract, and here history of the specific artist usually causes the most live interest. Therefore it is worth going to someone`s personal exhibition or to choose the museum which is most fully representing creativity of a certain master even if it is not devoted to it entirely. Children will like thought that the artist is some kind of “star“ too.