Karting is abruptly
How many exists sports on Earth, it is impossible to count. And not only because different people understand different things as sport. Besides, the ordinary audience can consider, for example, that track and field athletics is a one sport, and experts will tell that one jumps there are at least four look.
Not the exception and motoring. Someone thinks, races they and are races, and the understanding person will object: only rally exists not less the same four types - classical rally, rally - raids, rally - cross-country and rally - sprint. And ring races? In them also special racing cars (for example, in popular races of “Formula One“), both ordinary serial cars, and even trucks and lawn-mowers take part. One of the most widespread and available types of auto racing - karting. We will talk about it in more detail.
can Be engaged in karting at any age. In big cities there are covered kart circuits where go all the year round. Cars there rolling, but practically at everyone karting - the center are created racing schools. Allow children from 5 years to occupations, and already through a two-three of months arrange the first races of young pilots. And in sports karting the smallest “professional“ class - “Micro“ - is already mastered 6 - 7 - summer racers. >
It is considered p that the first cards appeared at the American military pilots during World War II. Once pilots adapted for the cart for transportation of baggage the motorcycle motor and between flights from there is nothing to do to steel to drive on an airfield. Then began to arrange competitions. In 1956 the mechanic of firm “Kurtis Kraft of the company Arth Ingels constructed the first cards similar to modern. On a simple frame he installed the engine from a lawn-mower, made the emergency brake and an elementary steering. And already in
For some 15 years karting won the whole world. In
What karting is so attractive? In - the first, the machine is simple in production (the truth if to compare to other racing cars) - therefore, costs not much. In - the second, the machine is steady and, therefore, is quite safe. In - the third, it is simple to cards to operate - therefore, practically any can go by it.
Karting, perhaps, the only type of motorsport in which there is almost official division of cars on special sports and rolling. Sports cars are in most cases more powerful, have two-stroke engines, and sometimes and the “real“ transmission with coupling and a transmission. Rolling generally equip with four-cycle motors, and instead of a transmission - the centrifugal coupling (variator).
Anatomy the card
All units the card fix on the frame welded from strong steel pipes with the outer diameter of
the Motor is put on the right and slightly behind from a seat (most often exactly on the right, but on some models at the left or absolutely behind). By means of a chain or belt drive the engine is connected to a back axis. On cards of recently appeared class DD 2 (Direct Drive direct transfer means) the motor is installed on a back axis and the drive is carried out by its direct rotation through a gear. Back axis at the card, unlike the car, integral. On it strengthen a brake disk. The fuel tank on sports cards is put under a wheel between the pilot`s legs, and on rolling - behind a seat.the Lever of gear shifting is placed by
to the right of a seat. Pedals of management were located the same as by ordinary car earlier: ahead on the right the accelerator pedal, is slightly more left - a brake. These pedals operated the right leg. The left leg, as on “adult“ cars “, managed“ a coupling pedal. But by sports cars the pilot switches transfers, practically without squeezing out couplings, and a quarter of the century more management of it transferred to the lever very similar on motorcycle back, and arranged it under a wheel at the left hand.- it is simpler than
On rolling cards: on the right - gas, at the left - a brake; there is no pedal of coupling and the lever of gear shifting also it and it is not necessary, the car is equipped with automatic transmission.courts have
In a suspension bracket no springs and shock-absorbers. Actually, and there is no suspension bracket - that per se. From - for it small machines very rigid, driving on them on feeling reminds movement on a stool. Therefore routes for karting try to do ideally equal, from asphalt clean everything, even the smallest hummocks.
the Important element the card - wheels. Lobbies it is always less back, both on width and on diameter. Back, on the contrary, more massive and wide. It also is clear: the main weight of the car and the pilot is the share of a back axis. Back wheels disperse cards, they also brake it (on forward wheels on many even sports models of brakes simply is not present). By the way, tires for courts as well as for big racing cars, do both for a dry covering, and for a rain of rubber of special structure which is literally pasted to the route and allows to pass turns very quickly.Equipment of a kartingist to
For occupations by rolling karting the equipment is not necessary to
. All necessary is given on a kart circuit. And it is a helmet and gloves. In some cards - the centers the equipment includes overalls (on the route often happens rather dirty) and protection for edges and a neck. The footwear is not given, as a rule, therefore if you gathered for a kart circuit, put on easy sneakers or gym shoes. For regular trainings in section or club a helmet, a cap comforter, gloves, overalls and special racing boots it is necessary to have the. If the kart circuit is located in the open air, then are necessary a waterproof cover on overalls for bad weather or a jacket with trousers, like what is given out to road makers. If RAF is about occupations by professional karting and participation in official competitions (they pass in Russia under the auspices of the Russian automobile Federation - RAF), then the equipment is chosen only from resolved, or as still speak, omologirovanny. A helmet of the pilot has to conform to strict requirements, but such models are rather heavy, and to lower load of a neck in case of accident, in addition use special “collar“. The footwear of the pilot has to protect an anklebone. Gloves are obligatory.
of Cards only in appearance looks as the unpretentious cart with the motor. In scale of these cars there are toilers who are almost round the clock working at rolling kartodro - a move. They give initial skills to young pilots, infect them with passion of the real racing fight. And there are unique samples of modern racing equipment equipped by the latest word of equipment, stuffed with sensors from spaceships.
Karting - the only type of motoring in which the child or the teenager can be engaged. Only permission of the doctor, a consent of parents is necessary - and the world of speed and adventures is open before you. Cards in skillful hands allows to go very quickly. The best sports cars without effort disperse to
of the Detail for inquisitive
movement Speed the card depends on power and the speed of the engine. The motor is more powerful, the quicker accelerates cards; the speed is higher, the maximum speed can be bigger. But not only these parameters rate of driving of the car is defined. Let`s remind: the engine and back axis (that is wheels) are connected by chain transfer. The asterisk standing in the motor (it is called the leader), always has 10 teeths, and asterisks on a back axis (conducted) can be different - from 80 to 83 teeths. The more teeths on the conducted asterisk, the better than cards disperses from the place or gathers speed from small to average. On the other hand, the asterisk less conducted, the is higher the maximum speed.the Conducted asterisks change
depending on that, the route is how difficult. If the distance consists of continuous abrupt turns and steep slopes, it is better to put an asterisk more (if the pilot heavy, by the way, too). On routes with equal long sites and smooth turns it is more correct to be guided by a “fast“ asterisk.
of Bureau of references
the Basic rules of competitions
In karting exist two types of competitions - ring races and winter track cycling on ice. On ice races we will not stop, they take place infrequently, and here we will talk about ring.by
to define a start order, carry out qualifying races. They can take place in competitions of different level differently, but the essence remains: the one who passed the official timed circle (or a site) quicker than others, starts the first. During start before crossing of a starting straight line it is impossible to make overtaking. If to consider that in the most advanced junior class “Rotaks Max Junior“ about forty racers in one arrival start, then when leaders already battle for centimeters of a race circuit, the tail of a starting peloton still trudges in a starting zone. By the way, professionalism level in this class such that results of passing of a qualification circle often differ less than for one second at two tens pilots!
during race cannot be pushed, beat out the rival from the route. It is necessary to pass those who go quicker and not to create them hindrances. Start race is given either a flag, or a traffic light signal. Start can be given from the place, as in “Formula One“, or from the course.
of the Judge on the route give to athletes signals flags. Flags these identical to all types of motorsport so if you watch on TV races of “the first formula“, then you will see, as well as there pilots obediently follow laws of the flag alphabet.
Finishing flag. Chyorno - white, checkered. The size of the cages alternating in chessboard order, 10 × 10 cm. It is used for the notification competing about the finish. The signal is given by flag waves.
the Red flag stops race. Drivers have to stop immediately race, raise a hand and, having convinced that the drivers following it accepted a signal, to stop.Chyorno`s
- a white flag. The field of a flag is divided on diagonal on two equal black and white speak rapidly (in language of racing drivers - “penguin“). He warns the driver about unsportsmanlike behavior and informs that at the following violation it will be excluded from competition or arrival.
the Black flag (“a black tag“, just as at pirates). Informs the driver that on the following circle he has to bring the of cards into the place determined by regulations and be to the head of race.
the Black flag with an orange circle. Informs the driver that his cards has technical malfunction and that on the following circle he has to eliminate defect in a repair zone then can continue race.
the Green flag with a yellow chevron - false start.
the Blue flag with two red diagonals. The driver has to stop immediately race and return to the closed park.
the Yellow flag - a danger signal. Drivers have to reduce speed and to be ready to a possible stop. If judges actively swing a flag, then danger very serious. In a zone of yellow flags any overtakings are forbidden.
the Yellow flag with red strips - the slippery road. It is most often used for the alarm system about the poured oil or about existence of pools.
the Green flag - the danger passed. It is used in two cases:
- for designation of the end of a dangerous zone (is shown not movably) and the place from which overtakings are again allowed;
- for giving of start on training or a heating circle. Is shown waves before departure of all courts from a starting zone.
the White flag - on the route slowly moving cards. At its stop the white flag is immediately replaced with yellow.
Blue flag. Informs the driver who lagged behind on a circle that one or several courts moving quicker are going to overtake it and they need to give way.