What our life? Reflex!
“That our life? A reflex“, - it is possible to approve safely, having slightly paraphrased Herman`s aria from the opera “Queen of spades“. And it is valid, a lot of things in our daily behavior, and also actions in this or that situation are defined by reflexes.
of Convention and certainty
If to speak dry language of definitions, then the reflex is a response of nervous system to irritation. Touched a hot plate - drew aside a hand, heard a sharp sound - turned the head towards a sound, put a lemon segment in a mouth - salivation began. All this occurs automatically, sometimes we do not even manage to realize that occurred, and our organism already reacted. Such reflexes are called unconditional, each person has them since the birth and exist throughout all life.to Understanding of a role of reflexes in human life and animals we are obliged by
to the outstanding Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
But also other situations happen. For example, we will not begin to touch the heated ring of the electric stove, we will not begin to turn around if behind call by name someone another, and izoydy in saliva only from the imagined picture - the juicy segment of a lemon sugared, with drops of the flowing-down juice. It conditioned reflexes which arise during development of each person work. They are strictly individual and are based on our skills, knowledge and experience.
Set of conditioned and difficult unconditioned reflexes is called higher nervous activity.
the Trifle big-bellied
the Newborn child all consists of unconditioned reflexes. They help it to survive and adapt to surrounding reality until as he will begin to realize the events around.Try to run
over a palm of the kid a finger. Right there the hvatatelny reflex will work, and your finger it will be tenacious it is squeezed. We got this reflex from woolly relatives - primacies, from that, how strong newborn obezyanenok will hold mother during a leaping from a branch on a branch, his life directly depends.
If to touch a cheek or a corner of a mouth of the kid, the search reflex will work, the child right there will turn the head towards irritation and will open a mouth. Thus he looks for a maternal breast. And as soon as the breast will be, the sosatelny reflex will work at once - the newborn will strong take a nipple and will begin to suck strenuously.
Crawling is too reflex action and as soon as the kid spread, it began to realize the following reflex - research. Studying of world around, testing “on tooth“ everyone and everything are reflex actions.
Well you and a brake
Time from the moment of receipt of an irritant before emergence of reaction of an organism are called reaction speed. At animals it it is almost instant and it is measured in milliseconds. People individual distinctions have much more. High speed of reaction is given some from the birth, some reach it intensive trainings.
And reaches some, long, for what in the people they are quite often klinut “brakes“. Actually, they have just wide interval between an irritant and reaction. In the nature animals with such tactics - technical characteristics do not survive, and in the human environment similar people only fill up a variety of characters and psychotypes.Be protected by
, the biggest group of unconditioned reflexes are protective, or defensive. And the main representative of this group - a so-called notsitseptivny fleksorny reflex. Behind this phrase difficult to pronounce hides otdergivany hands or legs from any painful irritant - whether it be sharp, hot, cold or what else unpleasant subject.
of “Zasverbelo“ in a nose, and we right there sneezed - it the sneezing reflex did not start up potential “pollutant“ in lungs. The mote - on guards a blink reflex, the frequent movements for centuries got into an eye, plentiful wetting of a conjunctiva a tear eliminates potential danger from an eye surface. Behind the back something banged - the person sat down, closed the head hands, tried to be pressed in district folds. It is a protective reflex too.does Authentically not know to
who invented a neurologic hammer. The American option - a rubber triangle on the metal handle - was offered in 1888 by John Taylor. The British option - the metal cylinder with a rubber tip on the bamboo, metal or wooden handle, appeared approximately in the same time. However bigger distribution in Europe was gained by modification of the famous French neuropathologist Joseph Babinsqui. In 1912 he offered completely folding option of a hammer with the metal handle.the Food turned out
substandard - will rescue an emetic reflex. However, the threshold of an emetic reflex at different people very strongly differs. Let`s tell, at the heroine of the legendary movie “Deep Throat“ the emetic reflex was practically absent.
the Main instincts
of the Chain of difficult unconditioned reflexes develop in instincts, basic of which - food, sexual and an instinct of self-preservation. The person - the only being who is capable to operate the instincts, to bring elements of conscious adjustment. In particular, strong-willed effort it is capable to break the most powerful instinct in wildlife - a self-preservation instinct. Suicide and self-sacrifice - here two opposite examples of a victory over the main instinct.
It is clinic
Studying of reflexes is very important for diagnosis of many diseases of nervous system. Doctors widely use the accumulated knowledge of a structure of these or those reflex arches that on change of reaction of an organism to judge localization of the pathological center.
the Classical “medical“ reflex - knee. Its biological value is lost in the depth of centuries, but diagnostic value is undoubted. It is one of so-called tendinous reflexes - reduction of muscles in response to irritation of the corresponding sinews. Similar reaction arises at blow a neurologic hammer on sinews of a biceps and a triceps, and also on an Achilles tendon.
Depending on what reflexes are caused freely and what are slowed down or in general are absent, neuropathologists can determine the level of defeat of nervous system rather precisely.