Rickets - what it is dangerous and as it to avoid
Rickets - the disease which is characterized by violation of food of all organism and caused by the reduced use of calcium and phosphorus, arising, as a rule, or at insufficient intake of vitamin D with food or at bad assimilation by an organism of this vitamin. Vitamin D in a human body plays the leading role in an exchange and use of calcium and phosphorus thanks to what influences formation and growth of bones, teeth.
Vitamin D contains in milk, an egg yolk, cottage cheese and other products. An additional source of vitamin D are still skin sterols which under the influence of ultraviolet rays of the sun turn into vitamin D. However this source of vitamin D is used by an organism in enough only in the summer. In a moderate belt climatic conditions do not allow the child to use all the year round a sunlight therefore rickets - an illness seasonal. It usually begins in the winter and it is found in the spring, in March, April. It is established that the greatest anti-rachitic effect ultraviolet rays of the sun wavelength between 290 and 310 nanometers (Dorno`s beams) have. However, if air is not transparent from - for fog, dust, clouds and also if the hade is big (that happens in the morning, in the evening or in the winter), then Dorno`s beams do not reach Earth. It is known that the reflected daylight is less effective twice, than a direct sunlight. Usually the windowpane does not pass Dorno`s beams, that is why even long stay of the child on the glazed loggia will never be compared by efficiency with at least 2 - x hour walk in the fresh air.to
the Children who are on breastfeeding according to modern data, are more subject to rickets, than the adapted mixes receiving artificial as in women`s milk the content of vitamin D is not enough, it does not provide the growing organism completely with this vitamin, however a ratio between the content of calcium and phosphorus optimum that promotes the best digestion of calcium.
Rickets - the disease of the growing organism concerning, first of all, bone system. Can suffer also nervous system (a convulsive syndrome), muscular (decrease in a muscular tone), digestive (at the expressed rickets children put on weight a little, vomiting, violation of a chair, dysbacterioses are frequent), systems of blood formation (at the heavy course of rickets there are anemias - decrease in hemoglobin), immune (children often grow white, and, banal SARS at children with rickets can proceed very hard).
the Most rough changes caused by rickets happen in those parts of a skeleton which at the time of an illness grow quicker in total in the first months of life - changes on skull bones (they become more pliable, soft, frontal and parietal hillocks are expressed), then - on a thorax (so-called, “costal beads“, they arise in places of transition of cartilaginous part of an edge to bone), by a year - these changes can be on hands, legs (deformation of shins, small joints).to
children aged from 2 - 3 months till 2 - 3 years are Most subject to a disease of rickets. Exists and, so-called, “late rickets“, it can arise at chronic diseases zheludochno - an intestinal path when vitamin D absorption is broken; at pancreas diseases, at irrational food and at living in dark, semibasement rooms.the Clinical picture of rickets is very various
As a rule, at the beginning of a disease children become irritable, uneasy, it is not enough and restlessly sleep. A classical symptom of the beginning of rickets is strong perspiration of the head of the child, especially by the end of feeding. Children are rather pale, violations of food can be expressed by both the excess weight, and considerable lag in weight. The muscular tone decreases, children begin to lag behind peers in physical development (begin to sit, stand, go later), and then - and in psychomotor development.
the Skull at the child becomes big, the big fontanel is expanded, its edges soft; frontal and parietal hillocks expand from what from above the skull gains square shape. Changes touch also a thorax - except described above “costal beads“, at prolonged rickets the shape of a thorax can change - the area of a breast acts forward, and on each side the breast is flattened, the lower edges are given knaruzh.
also bones of extremities Change, bones of luchezapyastny joints and anklebones are especially thickened. At loading, and sometimes and under the influence of the reduced muscles, are formed About - and X - figurative legs. The tone in all groups of muscles including stomach muscles - it becomes inflated, the big sizes (“a frog stomach“) decreases, there can be umbilical hernias. At the children sick with rickets, the locks connected with weak muscles of intestines are often noted, is late as well a teething - their term and an order.by
At the children having the expressed rickets often increased almonds and cervical lymph nodes as from - for the reduced immunity these children often have chronic infections.
Considering all aforesaid, becomes clear that this disease it is much easier to warn, than to treat. Prevention of a disease in the veseena - the winter period, that is in the months poor in sunshine is of particular importance. Prevention has to take place at all children who are on breastfeeding (on condition of the correct artificial feeding - the adapted mix - the child with food receives a daily preventive dose of vitamin D in 400 - 500 ME). If the child is raised by cow`s or goat milk, then prevention of rickets should pay special attention.
the Main prophylactic remains oil solution of D2 vitamin, in the most digestible form so far. Besides, it is possible to carry out prevention of UF to winter time - radiation on 15 - 20 sessions on a course. > It is recommended by
to p, except a balanced diet, to periodically give to children polyvitaminic preparations for the best digestion of vitamin D.
to avoid overdose of vitamin D and a possibility of development of a gipervitaminoz, periodically, 1 - 2 time a month, it is necessary to make test across Sulkovich (release of calcium with urine is investigated, the result one or two “+ is considered normal“). It is possible to carry out this reaction in any district clinic.
How to save the kid from this serious disease? First of all, it is necessary to observe still carefully to the pregnant woman prevention measures: the maximum stay of future mother in the fresh air, is recommended to include fermented milk products, cottage cheese, sour cream, cheese, meat, fish, creamy and vegetable oils, enough fresh fruit and vegetables in food. In the oseena - winter time of pregnancy is recommended reception of polyvitaminic preparations for pregnant women (“Gendevit“, “Vitrum - prenatat“, “Materna“, etc.) .Post-natal prevention (right after the birth of the kid) includes
- Natural feeding, balanced diet, timely introduction of feedings up;
- Observance of a day regimen, sufficient stay of the kid in the fresh air in daylight of day;
- Careful care of the child, gymnastics, massage. And also specific prevention by vitamin D what it was already told above about.