Game of intelligence
What to make that the little fidget became attentive, collected and correctly distributed the time? In total - navsy to teach to play it in chess...
Strict rules, a relentless minute hand, sixty four cages and only two colors - black and white. On a chessboard grandiose battles are played, and language of this great game is clear around the world.
Round the world
the Indian chaturanga, Arab shatrandzh, Mongolian Tatars, Chinese syants - all this prototypes of modern chess. Actually chess game was called by Tajiks: literally the name is translated “the master is prostrate“ and reflects the purpose - to deliver a mat to the rival`s king. The first mention of chess meets about 550, and the first textbook of chess game was made in 847. Chess extended at the same time to the East and to the West, to Europe and soon began to be considered as game of kings and aristocrats.
Modern chess - game international. It is proved also by terms: mittelshpil, the end-game and a time trouble are taken from German, gambit and fianketto - from Italian and if the player needs to correct a figure, “I correct“ the word at the international competitions he says in French...to
It is interesting, as figures in the different countries are called differently For example, French call an elephant “clown“, and British - “bishop“ (bishop). The logic in it is, both the clown, and the bishop are near the king and the queen, and chess elephants just settled down near the king and a queen. And here pragmatic Germans of an elephant call just “runner“, and a horse - “jumper“, meaning a way of movement of figures on a board.
Chess tournaments began to be held in the 16th century, and in the 19th century for the first time began to use control of time that game did not drag on indefinitely. The first official world championship on chess was carried out in 1886, Wilhelm Stejniz became the champion then. The leading positions were always taken by our chess players. Alexander Alyokhin, Mikhail Botvinnik, Vasily Smyslov, Mikhail Tal, Tigran Petrosyan, Boris Spassky, Anatoly Karpov, Garry Kasparov, Vladimir Kramnik were world champions. The current champion - the Indian chess player Vishvanatan Anand.
Why it is sport?
I ask Such question to Lyudmila Sergeyevna Belavenets, the senior coach of sports school “Youth of Moscow“ at Chess club of T. Petrosyan. Lyudmila Sergeyevna knows everything about this game: it kept fifteen years the Chess School program on television and was a world champion in game in chess on correspondence.
- Sport everything is means physical activity. And here players sit at a board, move figures and press the buttons on hours - here and here the movement.
- Still argue on what is chess - sport, art or science, - Lyudmila Sergeyevna says. - But sports component shah: it is very big. In - the first, the class of the player is defined by his category. In - the second, on chess tournaments are held, players win or lose. Here, as well as in any kind of sport, are important is kneaded to gather also physical health (several hours behind a board are a serious loading). Therefore, by the way, on collecting children at us not only are engaged in chess, but also ski, play soccer. At the same time any can achieve good results in chess, irrespective of growth, force or flexibility. Here another is important - attention, combinational thinking, logic.
- These qualities can be developed, or for chess the special talent is necessary?
- can Develop all! - Lyudmila Sergeyevna is sure. - Of course, to play at the level of the championships of Russia or the world, the talent is necessary. The person has to live chess. But it as everywhere - units achieve brilliant results. And just to become the Master of Sports or even the grand master many can, there would be a desire to work.
Children with concentration solve chess problems. On faces - both thoughtfulness, and confusion, and pleasure when it is possible to find the necessary course... Tasks - a necessary element of training, they develop combinational thinking and... creativity. Lyudmila Sergeyevna exposes on a demonstration board of a figure. At black - the king, a queen and several pawns. At white - the king, pawns and a horse with an elephant. It seems that white are doomed - where to a horse and an elephant against a queen! Nevertheless, white begin and win. How? Young chess players look at a board, write down one course, another, cross out... The task is not given! At last Vanya approaches with a notebook Lyudmila Sergeyevna.
- the Clear head! - she praises the boy.
It is valid, to guess that it is necessary to lock a queen, having offered black both figures, it was very difficult.are ready
To school!to Begin to teach the child to play
in chess it is possible years from four. And the chess circle will help it to be prepared for
- And the truth that all chess players - good mathematics? Or it is the myth?
- does not have Direct link with mathematics, - Lyudmila Sergeyevna explains. - But, of course, with logic at those who play chess, everything is all right, they are able to count a set of options, are attentive, they have a good memory. And, as a rule, estimates at school corresponding.
In the next class twelve-year-old Olya gives a session of simultaneous game to the beginning children. Olya has the first category, and she beats the rivals though against eight boys it is heavy to play at once. The incorrect course - and Kolya could deliver it a mat. But... talked, it was drilled also an opportunity to win missed. The boy was upset also itself understood that behind a chessboard you should not distract.
A at doors seven-year-old Seva with mother looks came to register.
- You are already able to play? - Lyudmila Sergeyevna asks.
- always I beat the Grandmother, - Seva smiles.Who knows
, maybe, in several years he will manage not only to beat the grandmother, but also to become the world champion?