That is possible also that it is impossible to recognize Enough by a drop of blood
to gather in searcher “diagnostics on a blood drop“, the mass of inconsistent information emerges. It appears, on a drop of blood it is possible to learn himself from head to foot: to find out the genetic profile, predisposition to these or those diseases, to receive the psychological portrait, to learn about compatibility with the partner and to receive the forecast of life expectancy. How to distinguish fictitious researches from the presents? What in general it is possible to recognize by a blood drop?
Was and became
To rather recent time calculation of cages at hematologic blood test was made manually. Now the account of cages happens to the help of the equipment: cages slip through an aperture where electric charges fix them, further fluorescent dyes paint them. On molecules, presented on membranes and in cages, the equipment perfectly copes with their differentiation.
It yields more exact results and allows to see changes at the cellular level earlier - respectively, gives the chance earlier and more precisely to diagnose those processes which are not shown externally yet, at other methods of research: Ultrasonography, a X-ray etc.
the General blood test
As soon as blood for the first time got under a microscope, and it became clear that it consists of cages, scientists understood that it can be used for diagnostics. The general is also based on the cellular analysis (it - hematologic) blood test.
the General blood test is:
- calculation of cages (how many leukocytes, erythrocytes, neutrophils, platelets, etc.) ;
- a differentiation of cages (a percentage ratio of cages of one look to cages of other look). It allows to make assumptions of the processes proceeding in an organism: for example, viral infection, effect of toxic substances;
- assessment of quality of cages (size of a cage and kernel, maturity, saturation of erythrocytes hemoglobin, etc.) .
Paradox that there is no diagnosis which could be based only on the general blood test. But at the same time hematologic analysis gives a picture of blood without which it is impossible to be engaged in diagnostics.
Everything that except cages
Blood consists of cages and of the liquid part (called by plasma or serum depending on whether it contains the fibrin which is responsible for coagulability of blood or not).
Diagnostics on plasma or serum - that direction which develops in the world quicker now in total exists about 1000 names of analyses: biochemical, immunochemical, diagnostics on an infection. Plasma is a molecular mirror of all our bodies and fabrics, a marker of all diseases and infectious processes.
Wait for the immune answer. A set of types of diagnostics on serum are based on the principle of the immune answer: any bacterium, any virus which takes root into our organism leaves in blood a mark in the form of the reply of immune system irrespective of, we got sick or not. Doing blood test, we can find out whether our immune system is familiar with this pathological agent (respectively, immunity is developed already or not).
Using the principle of the immune answer, it is possible to investigate a huge number of parameters: to find out what causes in you an allergy, to reveal oncology, hormonal violations, it is warm - vascular diseases, violations of brain fabric and many other things.
All this biochemistry. Cholesterol, bilirubin, blood enzymes, albumine and globulins - all this a subject of biochemical blood test. On biochemical indicators it is possible to estimate work of the main bodies and systems (a liver, kidneys, a proteinaceous exchange), to obtain information on a metabolism (an exchange of lipids, carbohydrates), to find out need for minerals.
Rather recently appeared methods of diagnostics are connected by
In depth of a kernel with studying of kernels of cages and fragments of DNA.
of PTsR - diagnostics. It is the method allowing to reveal even small concentration of certain fragments of DNA, having achieved significant increase in their concentration in a sample. By means of the PTsR method and other DNA - techniques it is possible to find, for example, a virus of an immunodeficiency and hepatitises in blood and to confirm the infection fact.
Bacteriological research. Allows to allocate causative agents of diseases from biological materials.“ It is necessary to know the enemy by sight“ to test him on sensitivity to antibiotics and to pick up therapy which will be effective for the specific patient.When analyses turn out
Superfluous analyses can appear for two reasons: from - for unlimited curiosity of the patient and from - for insufficient qualifications of the doctor.
research “superfluous“ if it as a result does not give that information which was looked for. For example, whether it is necessary to take a blood test on onkomarker if the oncological disease is not suspected yet?
Any testing on an onkomarker - good diagnostic information even if the test result does not meet our expectations.
Situation the first: the raised onkomarker is, and the tumor is not found. And it is fine: it means that the body has to be taken on control, it is necessary to check whether there is no infection, whether there are no inflammatory processes. If is not present, then within at least first three years it is necessary to do an onkomarker to track dynamics.
Other situation: the onkomarker is normal, and the tumor develops. Whether there was this test useless? No, because there is absolutely accurate communication: than zlokachestvenny the tumor, the more at it is potential to a metastazirovaniye, the probability is higher that it develops an onkomarker. In other words, this patient with a high probability will well answer therapy and has the good forecast.
With the curious patient: in principle, the analysis on something brand new and interesting can be done though every day - the benefit, exists a great variety of markers now, and new appear nearly daily.
Differently the situation with qualification of the doctor is. Really, the indifferent doctor can throw:“ Make tests on all infections“. If to take his words literally, it is necessary to make tests more, than on 200 infections among which there will be also such exotic as borellioz and malaria. From there is conclusion: the good expert will not begin to direct the patient to take a blood test to “all infections“ or “all allergens“. And the competent patient will not go - at least because this front approach will cost him in several salaries.
Diagnostics by birth - that sphere in which the desire to recognize “all and at once“, can be either ruinous, or too labor-consuming. Therefore there is a rule: it is necessary to do screenings which can tell us something certain then if necessary to expand research borders. In other words, there is no sense to do antibodies to insulin, without having measured glucose level.
Skill of the diagnostician
Any supermodern equipment, any supernew markers - only tools which are only addition to the clinical physician`s head. To that head which makes decisions: what researches to appoint and how to treat the obtained information. Here both experience, and intuition, and talent of the diagnostician will be required.
the Doctor appears between the devil and the deep sea: on the one hand, there is nothing more sadly, than “to miss“ a disease, not to appoint additional screening. On the other hand, it is not less sad for the doctor - to rely on the experience and not to recheck the assumption. For example, after single definition of antibodies to infectious agents, the diagnosis should not be made: it is always a subject of repeated researches, comparisons of the received results in dynamics and intellectual work of the clinical physician.Experience of the doctor is useful to
also in less critical cases - for example when nothing disturbs the patient, and he wants “simply to be checked“: preliminary consultation with the expert will be useful. Lubov Stankievich`s word:
“For example, before me the young man of 16 years. Most likely, it will not need an onkomarker if nothing disturbs him. Also you should not address an expanded lipidic profile if the young man is not corpulent and if I do not suspect at it the broken metabolism. Hematologic blood test, standard biochemistry, the analysis of urine - here that I can appoint to it. It is that minimum which really to nobody will never damage“.
Not everything manages to recognize by a blood drop
But all this medicine. People want to use possibilities of blood test for simpler, daily tasks which are whenever possible not connected with diseases. Advertizing answers these national expectations and offers: diets on a blood type to learn duration of the life on the basis of blood test, to learn itself and to learn what the second half that was to you long and happily has to have a blood type.
How to understand when the technique works and when make a fool of our brother - especially if in diagnostics by birth something new constantly appears?
is Told by Lubov Stankievich, the medical director of Ditriks Medikal laboratory:
“First of all, any theory has to be supported with practical developments. For example, there is a theory that to each blood type there corresponds the diet, under it even try to bring evolutionarily - the genetic theory: the first group - hunters, the second - collectors, and so on. But where scientific experimental confirmation of these reasons in the conditions of the modern world?
We can notice some fact. For example, in Japan at employment it is necessary to specify the blood type: on this basis the employer does the conclusions about character of the worker. Let`s assume, such communication is: but whether correctly we interpreted the noticed fact? It is possible to understand it only after long years of supervision. Therefore any technique has an important criterion: the data received in one laboratory have to be reproduced in another with just the same results. If the technique is non-reproducible, it is not worth a pin for such technique“.
we Thank Lubov Stankievich for consultation of the medical director of Ditriks Medikal laboratory.