In a point! Pour
! With a temperature or without, small and large, itching and not really, “bubbles“ or “plaques“ - it always equally frightens parents, to find the reason of “rashes“ sometimes happens not easy. The child who unexpectedly became covered by red spots himself also reminds the recovered monster, and life of parents turns into the horror film. It is not necessary to be afraid, it is necessary to be treated!
Chicken pox, or chicken pox
Activator: a virusvaritsella - a zoster (Varicella - Zoster virus, VZV).
Way of transfer: vozdushno - drop. It is transferred from the sick person healthy at conversation, cough, sneezing.
Immunity to chicken pox: lifelong. It is developed either as a result of an illness, or after vaccination. At children whose mothers had chicken pox or were imparted from it, immunity to chicken pox is transferred from mother vnutriutrobno and remains first
Incubatory period: from 10 to 23 days.
Infectious period: the entire period of rash of +5 days after the last rash.
of Manifestation: red points appear along with rise in temperature. However, temperature can sometimes remain normal or raise slightly. Specks very quickly turn into single bubbles - the vezikula filled with transparent yellowish liquid. Soon they dry up and become covered by crusts. Distinctive feature of chicken pox - rash on the head under hair and on mucous (in a mouth during a century etc.) . Very often this rash scratches.
Treatment: chicken pox passes independently therefore treatment can be only symptomatic: to bring down temperature, to process the itching rash brilliant green (in order that, combing bubbles, the child did not bring an additional infection there), to give an antihistaminic preparation that scratched less. It is possible to bathe at chicken pox! But at the same time it is impossible to pound the struck places - instead it is necessary to promakivat accurately them a towel.
It is important: to use brilliant green or other dyes (fukortsin etc.) it is necessary and not to pass the next rashes, - smeared will be only old specks. It is also simpler to monitor also emergence of the last center of rash.
Activator: virus of simple herpes. Happens two types: the virus of simple herpes of the I type causes rashes in a mouth, the II type - in genitals and back pass.
Way of transfer: vozdushno - drop and contact (kisses, the general objects of use etc.).
Immunity: it is not developed, the illness proceeds with periodic aggravations against a stress or other infections (a SARS etc.) .
Infectious period: all the time of rashes.
of Manifestation: some days before emergence of rash the itch and morbidity of skin can be noted. Then in this place the group of closely located bubbles will appear. Temperature rises extremely seldom.
Treatment: special antiviral ointments, for example with an acyclovir etc.
It is important: to use ointment right after developing of an itch and morbidity even before emergence of bubbles. In this case rashes can not arise at all.
the Syndrome “a hand - a leg - a mouth“
(from the English name Hand - Foot - and - Mouth Disease, HFMD), or enteroviral vesicular stomatitis with ekzantemy.
Way of transfer: fekalno - oral and vozdushno - drop. The virus is transmitted from the person to the person at communication, conversation, use of the general objects of use (ware, toys, a bed etc.) .
Immunity : after the postponed disease - lifelong.
Incubatory period: from 2 days to 3 weeks, on average - about 7 days. Infectious period: since the beginning of a disease.
of Manifestation : in the beginning temperature increases and stomatitis begins: rashes on mucous a mouth, pain at meal, plentiful salivation. Temperature sticks to
Treatment: does not have specific treatment, symptomatic cure for decrease in temperature and pain relief for stomatitis are used. The disease passes independently, complications are possible only in case of accession of a bacterial or fungal infection in an oral cavity. > it is hard for p to Make to
the diagnosis of enteroviral vesicular stomatitis since rash is shown not at once and very often it is regarded as display of an allergy.
It is important: despite active use in treatment of stomatitis of various anesthetics, the first few days to the child it can be very painful is. In such cases it is good to use the most liquid food (milk, fermented milk products, milkshakes, baby food for kids, soups etc.) and to give it through a straw. Surely you watch food temperature: it should not be neither cold, nor too hot - only warm.Rozeol`s
(sudden ekzantema, sixth illness)
Activator: one more representative of nice family of gerpesvirus - a virus of herpes
Way of transfer: vozdushno - drop. The infection extends at talk, communication, sneezing etc.
Immunity: after the postponed disease - lifelong. Children till 4 months have an immunity received vnutriutrobno from mother. Incubatory period:
Infectious period: all the time of a disease.
of Manifestation: sudden rise in temperature and through
Treatment: only symptomatic therapy - plentiful drink, decrease in temperature etc.
independently, there are practically no complications.Rozeolu`s
is quite often called a pseudo-rubella since skin displays of these diseases are very similar. A distinctive feature of a rozeola is emergence of rashes after temperature drop.
It is important: as well as in a case with enteroviral stomatitis, the rash which developed not in the first day of an illness is often regarded as allergic, It is sometimes really difficult to distinguish them, but allergic rash, as a rule, quite strongly scratches, at the rozeol of an itch should not be.
Activator: virus of a rubella (Rubella virus)
Way of transfer: vozdushno - drop. The virus is transmitted at communication, cough, conversation.
Immunity: lifelong. It is developed either after an illness, or after vaccination. To children, whose mothers had a rubella or were imparted from it, immunity to a rubella is transferred vnutriutrobno and remains first
Incubatory period: from 11 to 24 days.
Infectious period: with
of Manifestation: temperature increases. On a face, extremities, a trunk there is small, is pale - the pink, not itching rash, and along with it zadnesheyny lymph nodes increase. Temperature sticks to no more
Treatment: only symptomatic therapy: plentiful drink, if necessary decrease in temperature etc. Children have an illness easily, and here adults often have complications. The rubella is especially dangerous in the first trimester of pregnancy: the virus gets through a placenta and causes a congenital rubella as a result of which the newborn can have deafness, a cataract or heart disease in the child. Therefore everything, especially to girls, it is strongly recommended to conduct a course of vaccination against this disease.
Activator: virus of measles (Polinosa morbillarum)
Way of transfer: vozdushno - drop. Extraordinary infectious and very flying virus of measles can not only be transmitted at direct communication with the sick person, but also, for example, extend on air-channels, infecting people in the neighboring apartments.
Immunity: lifelong. It is developed either after an illness, or after vaccination. To children, whose mothers had measles or were imparted from it, immunity to measles is transferred vnutriutrobno and remains first
Incubatory period: put
Infectious period: From two last days of the incubatory period to
of Manifestation: temperature increase, cough, voice osiplost, conjunctivitis. On 3 - 5 - y day of an illness there are merging spots bright, large sometimes on a face, at the same time temperature remains. On
Treatment: symptomatic therapy: plentiful drink, the darkened room (since conjunctivitis is followed by a photophobia), febrifugal. To children till 6 years appoint antibiotics for prevention of accession of a bacterial infection. Thanks to vaccination measles became quite rare disease now.
Infectious eriterma, or fifth illness
Activator: parvovirus B19
Way of transfer: vozdushno - drop. Most often the infection occurs at children in organized children`s collectives - day nursery, kindergartens and schools.
Immunity: after the postponed disease - lifelong.
Infectious period: incubatory period + entire period of an illness.
of Manifestation: everything begins as usual a SARS. During
Treatment: does not have specific treatment, only symptomatic therapy. The disease passes independently, complications happen extremely seldom.
Activator: a beta - a hemolytic streptococcus of group A.
Way of transfer: vozdushno - drop. The activator is transferred at conversation, cough, use of the general objects of use (ware, toys etc.) .
Immunity: after the postponed disease - lifelong.
Infectious period : the first few days diseases.
of Manifestation: the illness begins as well as usual quinsy (a sore throat, temperature). Rashes, characteristic of scarlet fever, develop on 1 - 3 - y day from the beginning of a disease. Rash is small, it is bright - pink, settles down generally on cheeks, and on each side and through
Treatment : only antibiotics of a broad spectrum of activity. It is very important to begin treatment as soon as possible since. scarlet fever can provoke development of such autoimmune diseases as rheumatism, glomerulonefrit, autoimmune damage of a brain.
Sometimes the illness proceeds in the erased form, without the expressed temperature increase, inflammations in a throat and rash. In such cases parents notice only suddenly begun peeling on palms. If it occurred - it is necessary to consult with the doctor.
It is important: as scarlet fever can provoke development of serious autoimmune diseases, for early diagnostics of possible complications doctors recommend to do blood tests and urine. For the first time they are handed over during an illness, and then repeated in two weeks after recovery, Then it is recommended to make also the electrocardiogram.
the Incubatory period - the period when infection already occurred, but the illness did not develop yet.
the Infectious period - time when the sick person can infect people around.
Can distinguish six “primary“ diseases with rash: the first illness - measles, the second illness - scarlet fever, the third illness - a rubella, the fourth illness - infectious mononukleoz, the fifth illness - an infectious eritema, the sixth illness - a children`s rozeola (a sudden ekzantema).