Whether what toys are necessary to the child of
children`s game only an entertainment Can? The children`s psychologist will immediately exclaim:“ By no means! Without game full development of the child is impossible“.
Children`s game is true research activity. The kid thoroughly, seriously gets acquainted with pieces of world around - first of all with toys.
the Choice of toys for the kid cannot be neglected in any way. If the one-year-old person for days on end cracks a rattle also does not know what is cubes, pyramids, pishchalka and so forth, he for certain will lag behind in development the peers. Let`s try to understand how in the best way to organize game space of the child within the first year of his life.Newborn from 0 about one month toys are not required for
as all his life is defined only by contacts with adults. And here in the period of from one to three months at the child form mechanisms of visual and acoustical perception. So, at monthly age the kid not only fixes a look on a face of the adult, but also tries to watch it. In two months of the child already interest various objects, contrast drawings, a pattern on wall-paper. Almost all the time, free from a dream and food, he examines something, to something listens … Now it is a high time to provide to the kid convenient material for examining and fixing of a look. Let it will be decorative spots of pure, bright color (light-red, yellow, blue, it is bright - green on a gray or cream background). These spots can represent the geometrical figures or drawings pasted on walls or a ceiling. It is possible to suspend to a ceiling multi-colored figures on threads. Let`s notice that children at this age most willingly fix a look on objects of yellow color. You watch that the child was not come into the view by too many bright objects - it will prevent it to focus sight on some one spot (drawing) and to properly consider it.
Coordination of movements of eyes - the next stage of development of the visual device of the child. Here it will be helped by special glazodvigatelny gymnastics. Take a bright rattle and place it at distance of 40 cm from the child`s eyes. After it stops on it a look, take away a toy to the right, then to the left, up, down … You watch eyes of the kid. If he “lost“ a rattle, repeat exercise, be only not overzealous: occupation has to last no more than two minutes. >
It is useful for p to put a rattle in the handle of the kid (certainly, it has to be easy and not too volume). The child cannot play it yet, but gradually, in process of development of motive system, will begin to bring a toy to the person, then to intentionally place it under review better to make out. And then the toy will begin to carry out the forming function, stimulating the purposeful movements and developing coordination “an eye - a hand“.
during from 3 to 6 months the set of the movements mastered by the child extends: it can, for example, not only reach the handle or a leg a toy, but also to come to it - in a literal sense. Means, it is time to expand game space - from time to time to arrange the kid on a carpet or to place it in an extensive arena.
If before the child learned the world by means of sight and hearing, now he tries to feel this or that subject. At this stage it is desirable that toys available to it were varied in form also to the invoice. It is possible to offer the kid not only plastic and rubber toys, but also soft (provided that it is easy to clean them). The sounding toys - they are very good as any others stimulate the intelligent movements. If to suspend to a bed a hand bell - the kid, moving handles or legs, can shake a bed, and the hand bell will ring out. It will like this sound, and he will want to hear it once again. Rattles which fasten to a wrist as a bracelet, induce the child to move with handles too.
As at this time - from 3 to 6 months - the arsenal of movements of the child considerably extends, comes it is time to update the range of toys available to it. Rubber small animals - pishchalka, dolls - tumbler toys and primitive musical instruments with large keys represent for 5 - the monthly kid a perennial spring of interest - they are “live“. They talk, cry, laugh when it touches them (overturns, presses to itself etc.) .
Such elementary occupations with toys promote establishment of communications between the departments of a brain which are responsible for visual, acoustical, tactile perception and also for motive functions. Efforts which are made by the child, trying to seize the subject interesting him, and the difficulties connected with it form one of the major human abilities - to work purposefully and is comprehended. The behavior of the child with a toy in hands is not game, but already real, real-life research of both a subject, and opportunities of own body yet.At this stage the attention of the child is very important not to overload
- give it the chance to deal with one toy and only after it offer another. There is such moment: the child is attracted most of all by novelty, and that the familiar toy did not become boring, from time to time hide it. In couple of days the kid will rejoice it as new.
C 6 till 9 months an athletic ability of the child is enriched and become complicated. It freely moves on all fours and tries to rise. Along with it small motility of hands develops: the kid tries to take a subject not only a palm, but also shchepotyyu, and fingers.
Before acquaintance of the child to objects happened accidentally - now his actions are purposeful. Expansion of an outlook of the little person in many respects depends on adults. This very serious business - to show to the child how to handle various toys. How to twist a barabanchik how to press fingers keys how to force a ball to sweep. At this age the child still potters with rattles and pishchalka, but more difficult toys are interesting to it: machines, folding books with bright pictures (to readers little, but full of furious interest books from a dense cardboard are not incidentally recommended!) .
This special time for parents: expression “behind it an eye yes of eyes“ most precisely depicts a situation. Many try to constrain physical activity of the child for safety reasons (or without having time to look after it). But it is necessary to preserve the child only against what is really dangerous to him. Study - that on mistakes.
By 9 months the kid understands that can be played two objects at once. For example, if to bang one toy about another, there is a sound (a ring, a roar), and it awfully is pleasant to it. Now he can deal at last and with a set of molds, cubes and pyramids. First the kid will destroy the pyramids and locks collected by you from cubes, but through some time will surely try to build something. For 7 - 9 - monthly there are special, from flexible plastic designers. These are, as a rule, not closed rings which are remarkably easily linked (though children for some reason like to gnaw them more).by this time to the child simple games with adults are available to
: “pat-a-cake“, “ku - ku“, “shu - at, departed“ … Ask the kid to specify (to find) this or that toy: “Where hare?“ If the child did not understand you or is at a loss with the answer, help it: “Yes here it, hare!“
the Greatest achievement in life of the one-year-old child - walking without support, that is finding of sense of equilibrium. During this period (and even earlier, after 9 months) small motility of hands becomes day by day more perfect. If earlier the child incidentally dropped toys, now he does it intentionally. There is a game, tiresome for the adult, but infinitely attractive to the kid: he throws an elephant again and again, and patient mother lifts it again and again.
Godovichok already owns both hands: puts molds one in another, strings on a pyramid ring core, undresses and dresses a nested doll.
the spinning top Loved by all - just for one-year-old, and also a glockenspiel and a drum. Mastering them, the child learns to count, in addition, blow force for extraction of various sounds.the child should acquaint Right now
with the world of the apartment, huge for it, or rooms, with household goods. It needs to show how to handle water, ware (unbreakable, certainly). The earlier it will begin to comprehend this party of house life, the its games will be safer.
the One-year-old child violently rejoices to such toys as plastic phone, sets of doll ware, a doll hairdressing salon. It especially is interesting to it that at this time he very much copies - seeks to copy adults. Mother brushes the hair - and the daughter murmurs, demanding a hairbrush. And still: at this age children like to check everything for durability therefore toys (any objects in which the kid is engaged) should not break and especially to break.
As at this age the child learns to own a body, with it it is necessary to play the games forming sense of equilibrium and coordination of movements. Best of all coordinate the movement of ball game: the small ball can be thrown and caught, big - to push with handles and legs, to run behind it, to catch up with it and to stop. The butterflies (ladybugs, dragonflies) got on a long stick on castors which the kid rolls before himself are very good.
the Swing, prygunka, a horse - a rocking chair - excellent objects for development of sense of equilibrium (of course, it is possible to be shaken on a horse only with mother - it both will put, and will shake, and will remove).are Extraordinary interesting by
to the kid of game with “natatorial“ toys - ducks, small fishes and so forth. And games in a sandbox do not have equal at all: the one-year-old person is capable to puff for hours over molds, pouring sand from one into another. At this time own bucket, a scoop and the truck - the dump truck are sharply necessary for it. Baking of a Kulichiki from sand, that is an active and intelligent shaping, - the present act of creativity, one of the first steps on the way of development of creative thinking.to
By the way, to the one-year-old child it is already possible to give in hands pencils - polyflowers and paper, and bringing together him on the street, to put pieces of chalk in a jacket pocket. When reaches it that these objects leave a mark, the result of manipulations will become burningly interesting to it by them. A children`s scribble - absolutely not that adults put in this concept. It is the first attempt to identify and though in small (infantile small) degrees to realize the world. Besides, a scribble forms coordination of system “an eye - a hand“.
Is summarized: in the first year of life of the child between game and knowledge of world around it is possible to put an equal-sign safely. Later there will come time syuzhetno - role-playing games, and then the child`s relation to toys will become other. And now to live and play for it - same.
- of the Toy should not break, break easily. They should have no fine details which can get to the kid into a mouth or into a nose. Soft toys can give
- to the child only if it is easy to clean them.
- When the child will begin to master room space, wrap up something soft acute angles of furniture, close electrosockets, clean from a wire floor.
- Entering the room, do not forget that behind a door there can be a kid. you Watch
- , than plays your small. Among its “toys“ there can be not only quite safe mother`s slippers, but also a rustling plastic bag (which the child by all means will try to put on the head).