Diabetes at children and teenagers of
We hurry all the time, we overcome stresses, we fight against a hypodynamia, we eat quick... And what followed it? The number of patients, for example, with the diabetes (D), obesity, a hypertensive illness grew up. Unfortunately, children and teenagers were not avoided by many diseases.
Diabetes “grew“ and “looked younger“
Total of patients with diabetes (both the first, and second type) in the world exceeded 150 million people; in Russia 2,5 million patients among adults are officially registered. Approximately as much the person are at a prediabetes stage. But actually the number of patients in two - three times exceeds official figures... Annually the number of patients increases by 5 - 7%, and each
Diabetes, by definition of WHO, - a disease of endocrine system at which the condition of the chronic increased level of glucose of blood (hyperglycemia) which can develop as a result of action of many genetic, exogenous, etc. factors is noted. The hyperglycemia can be caused or a lack of insulin - pancreas hormone, or surplus of factors which counteract its activity. The disease is followed by deep violations of carbohydrate, fatty and proteinaceous exchanges and to development of insufficiency of various bodies and systems, especially an eye, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels.
On modern representations, insulin-dependent diabetes (IZSD) of 1 type which develops at children`s and teenage age (generally till 30 years) is the disease developing against genetic (hereditary) predisposition at influence of factors of external environment. The reasons of diabetes of the first type are that production of insulin decreases or at all the beta - cells (Langergans`s cells) of a pancreas under the influence of, for example, viral infection, existence in food of toxic agents, such as nitrozoamin, a stress and other factors stops owing to death.
Diabetes of the second type which, elderly people generally are ill meets four times more often than diabetes of the first type. In this case a beta - cages produce insulin in usual and even large number in the beginning. However its activity is reduced (as a rule, from - for redundancy of fatty tissue which receptors have the lowered sensitivity to insulin). Further there can come reduction of formation of insulin. The reasons of development of diabetes
- 1 type - insulin-dependent diabetes (IZSD);
- 2 type - insulinnezavisimy diabetes (INSD);
- 3 the SD type with other syndromes or other reason;
- 4 type - violation of tolerance to glucose (a so-called stage of prediabetes):
- without obesity
- with obesity
- 5 type - diabetes of pregnant women.
to Estimate risks of a disease of diabetes
Experts - endocrinologists are sure that risk to ache with diabetes increases if in your family someone is ill or had diabetes. However the different figures defining probability of a disease are given in different sources. There are supervision that diabetes of the first type is inherited with probability of 3 - 7% in the area of mother and with probability of 10% in the area of the father. If both parent are ill, the risk of a disease increases several times - up to 70%. Diabetes of the second type is inherited with probability of 80% both on maternal, and on the fatherly line and if SD 2 types are ill both parent, the probability of its manifestation at children approaches 100%.
Therefore to a family where blood relatives have SD cases, needs to be remembered that the child is included into “risk group“, so it is necessary to minimize risk of development of this serious illness (prevention of an infection, a healthy lifestyle and food, etc.) .
Second on the importance the diabetes reason - the excess weight or obesity, this symptom is important both in the adult, and at children`s age. For a long time of the practice and supervision endocrinologists found out that nearly 90% sick with diabetes
the Third of the reasons playing a role in development of SD especially at children`s age are viral infections (a rubella, chicken pox, epidemic hepatitis and other diseases, t. h and flu). These infections play a role of the mechanism starting autoimmune process, at children with immunological violations (often not diagnosed earlier). Of course, at the majority flu or chicken pox will not become the beginning of diabetes. But if the child with obesity from a family where the father or mother are ill SD, then for it and flu poses some threat.
of One more of the reasons of development of SD are pancreas diseases at which there is a defeat a beta - cages, for example pancreatitis (a pancreas inflammation), a pancreatic cancer, a trauma of body, and also poisoning with medicines or chemicals. These diseases develop, generally at more advanced age. Also at adults an important role in developing of diabetes is played by a chronic stress and an emotional overstrain, especially, if the person I have excessive weight and patients in a family.
I Want to pay attention that at teenagers 2 types are risk factors of development of SD:
- decrease in physical activity
- the burdened heredity
- the puberty period
- a syndrome of polycystous ovaries at girls
Now pediatricians and children`s endocrinologists are concerned by development in teenagers of a so-called “metabolic syndrome“: obesity + insulin resistance (a state at which at normal concentration of insulin decrease in consumption of glucose is noted by fabrics). Insufficient consumption of glucose fabrics leads to stimulation of cells of Langergans, development of new portions of insulin and development of a giperinsulinemiya), plus a dislipidemiya (the raised / changed level of lipids in blood), plus arterial hypertension.the metabolic syndrome is revealed by
In the USA at 4,2% of teenagers among all teenage population (research 1988 - 1994) and young men are more subject to this syndrome, than girls. It was also revealed that violation of tolerance to glucose is noted at 21% of teenagers with obesity. In Russia there is no full-fledged statistics, however in 1994 within the State register of diabetes the Register of the children sick with diabetes living in Moscow was created. It is established that incidence of IZSD at children in 1994 made 11,7 people on 100 thousand children`s population, and in 1995 - already 12,1 on 100 thousand. It is sad dynamics.