Rus Articles Journal

Whether the school is harmful to health?

About what with revenues in school to the child falls huge from time to time excessive loading, speak much and long ago. 20 years ago the country sang: “Began to load more and more us for some reason, now at school the first class like institute...“

But in recent years this subject began to sound even more often. According to Minsotszdravrazvitiya`s data. 70% of children before inclusion in the first class are rather healthy, and by the time of leaving school of 45 - 50% already have chronic diseases. The reasons for that experts call a little, and the most important of them - a motionless way of life and stresses. At younger school deficiency of physical activity at children makes, according to the estimates of physiologists. 35 - 40%, and in senior - already about 80%. Judge for yourself: at the high and high school the general time of occupations, including lessons, facultative occupations and homework, averages 9,5 hours. Add invariable 1,5 hours in front of the TV here - and as a result of 11 hours a day the teenager will see off without the movement.

Other, not less serious reason of deterioration in health of children is connected by

with what physicians call “a stress of restriction of time“ in which the child daily is for long 11 years. During polls by the most frequent answer to the question “what disturbs you?“ at school students was “there is not enough time“.

Why does that happen?

What tell about it laws? Unless they allow so serious loads of a children`s organism?

“If to compare real loadings and the accepted standards of Sanitary standards and rules which regulate academic and nonlearning load of school students, - Maryana Bezrukikh, Doctor of Biological Science, the director of Institute of age physiology says, - that, certainly, the overload is also at school, and occupations out of school. Though, it must be kept in mind that these standards are registered “in hours“, and adequacy of loadings to age, their intensity, information saturation, etc. is not considered in any way. And, as a rule, already from the first class at kids happens not four, but five (sometimes and six) lessons which in the schedule are designated as open classrooms or classes in the choice, but are obligatory for all. And homeworks are set literally from the first days, and on preparation of lessons not less than 1,5 hours leave“. It is especially heavy to p to study

at those schools to which most of parents so seeks to send the children. It is about “special“, with profound studying of different objects, in lyceums and gymnasiums.“ The working day at these children in the main and high school, - Maryana Bezrukikh tells, - it is not less of 12 - 14 hours. Actually children do not walk, have not a rest, they have no time for reading, sports activities, etc. Quite often kids practise both music, and a foreign language, and sport, everything is calculated on minutes, and lessons - in the evening, when there is no forces. Researches which are conducted at our institute show that children prepare lessons, as a rule, in the evening when they are tired and overall performance is very low. Many children not only miss walks (and they have to walk not less than 2,5 hours a day, but also do not fill up (1,5 - 2 hours)“.

the Academic load of the senior school students averages
50,5 hours a week whereas at adults working week under the law does not exceed 41 hour.

In what the reasons of overloads

But business even not only that study takes too much time. But also that at this time try to enclose in the children`s head as it is possible the bigger volume of information. The farther, the more there is knowledge which is necessary to the educated person. And the school goes on the simplest way - just “glues“ new knowledge to old, without changing the form of teaching.“ The existing system of training, - comments on Marjan Bezrukikh, is a system of reproductive knowledge, that is a zazubrivaniye, time of unsystematic learning - the most expensive on time and forces. And the most inefficient. In the course of training neither age, nor specific features of development of the child, his cognitive activity are considered. And this main condition of preservation of physical and mental health“.

as

was considered Until recently that all trouble that in a class there are a lot of children. But, as show modern researches of the European scientists, the optimum number of pupils in a class - 25 people. At the same time the child has enough contacts with others, and children actually go to school not behind knowledge, namely behind contacts. But here teachers at the increasing flow of information work in the old manner, that is facing a class and telling a subject. The majority of them has no skills of really interactive communication, creativity, research work, and taking into account opportunities and needs of each child. For example, very few people understand that reading and the letter on speed do one harm. Physiologists say long ago that such speeding up leads to the return result: formation of these important skills is slowed down. And without saying it any more that at the child hunting vanishes both to read and to write. Perhaps, the reasons that pedagogical education does not assume serious studying of age physiology of children. Teachers well know the subject and are not familiar with features of the child of this age.

“Talking to parents, - Maryana Bezrukikh tells, - I see how they aggravate a situation. For example, force even junior school pupils to be engaged in addition with tutors. It occurs already from the first class! Many parents are too rigid to children. For example, mother of the first grader complains: “The daughter slid from “small squares“ on “hyphens“ (their school specially does not give marks in the first class, but it does not stop mother) therefore in punishment I forbid it to take with myself in school of a toy...“ It is the true parental illiteracy!“

First signs of tension and overload:
    of
  • sharp deterioration in handwriting;
  • emergence of “ridiculous mistakes“
  • the increased concern;
  • slackness, drowsiness or, on the contrary, hypererethism, especially before going to bed;
  • lack of appetite;
  • sharp change of mood (from laughter to tears);
  • uneasy dream;
  • emergence of fears (any);
  • of the complaint to headaches, belly-aches, fatigue;
  • decrease in body weight (the child grows thin);
  • shadows under the eyes.

What is planned to be changed?

several years reform of school continues. Some of changes are visible to all: for example, USE introduction, disputes on which do not cease. Or the promised transition to 12 - summer an education system, causing not less discussions. Others concern training of teachers - so, already very soon teachers will be given the chance at least, than time five years, to pass study, to improve skills, the system of the budgetary certificates is for this purpose developed. In March the State Duma plans to consider the law “About Education“ concerning all steps of education. The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation developed the Our New School project which is actively discussed now by teachers. In it it is also about change of training of teachers, and about introduction of new technologies in training - interactive boards and school desks, remote education, electronic diaries...

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As for reduction of load of the school student, here solutions it is not found yet. Doctors persistently carry on talk on health saving technologies of training, that it is necessary to increase a physical culture number of hours, and besides it to introduce motive, active elements in occupations. Besides. educational programs should be tested regarding their safety for health of children. because some “advanced“ techniques do harm.

Not so long ago on a popular pedagogical portal there was information on possible changes at high school: that in the near future in the first half of school day children will study three obligatory subjects (free of charge), and in the second half - everything that is not included into the obligatory program and is paid in addition (work, music, physical culture etc.). Information caused rough reaction and was not confirmed with the official organizations. But it provoked discussion about whether it is necessary to separate “serious“ and “minor“ objects of time.“ - considers Marjan Bezrukikh by no means, - to be engaged in such objects as mathematics, the Russian, the physicist, several hours in a row very difficult. Even it is difficult for adult to switch so from one serious cogitative activity to another. Therefore breaks in the form of the same physical culture or music are necessary!“

What to do to us, parents? In - the first, - and the most important - not to pile on the agony and not to strengthen already difficult condition of an overload of the school student. You do not hurry with study, send to school not earlier, than in six and a half years - according to physicians, till this time the brain is not ready to systematic study yet. Before or to employ the child`s messages on occupations in section to him the tutor, consult to the doctor, to the psychologist and to the teacher. Remember that the child cannot be deprived of “blessed inaction“ at all - time when he can be engaged in nothing in general. And, at last, try to spend as much as possible free time together - walk, play sports, play, tell each other stories. The more favourite and necessary the child of the house will feel, the it will be easier for it to study.