Psychological features of levoruky children, or School problems of lefthanders
throughout all evolution the people differing from the majority in some specific features, for example, of the lefthander caused interest and surprise. However the attitude towards lefthanders, as well as other “black sheep“ often was alerted, and sometimes and sharply negative.
“Traces“ of such relation remained in many languages. For example, in Russian there is still a set of examples such. “The left goods“ - the goods sold on the left, i.e. unduly, or goods false, forged. It is similarly possible to consider value of phrases “left income“, “left money“, “the left image“, etc. Similar coloring of the word “left“ meets also in the expressions which are not relating to finance:“ as the left leg will want“, “left side“, “to get out of bed on the wrong side“, etc.
In English the word of “levorukiya“ has additional values “clumsy“, “hypocritical“, “ominous“, “illegal“. Similar communications are traced in the French, Italian, Spanish, German languages.
Considering communication of language and consciousness, once the negative stereotypic perception is surprised lefthanders with the “pravoruky“ majority.
Fortunately, presently, when many stereotypes break, the concept “norm“ gets less rigid framework, people become more tolerant to various manifestations of identity. Now the phenomenon of a levshestvo is much studied, results of this work allow to change stereotypic perception of lefthanders and to gradually develop techniques of their training. If before lefthanders at school tried to retrain, “adjust“ them to a pravoruky class (and teachers), then now all teachers know that not only it is not necessary to remake the nature, but also the fact that the individual approach has to be applied to levoruky children and even to be used other methods of training more natural to them and therefore more effective.
Studying of features of lefthanders is complicated by the fact that lefthanders are not uniform group at all. There are various reasons of a levshestvo on which development of these or those qualities in the child can depend. Besides, “the hidden levshestvo“ meets. But also it is not all. The child can be the levoruky, but not absolute lefthander. To understand all variety of these manifestations, first of all we will differentiate the concepts “levorukost“ and “levshestvo“.determines by
of Levorukost only the leading hand whereas a levshestvo - the complex characteristic reflecting big activity of the right cerebral hemisphere (unlike right-handed persons at whom the left hemisphere dominates). Thus, if your child prefers everything to do by the left hand, then you with confidence can claim that he is levorukiya. However, whether he is a lefthander in general, it is possible to judge only after identification of the leading eye at it, the leading leg and the leading ear. Usually for this purpose carry out special tests, but sometimes it is possible to understand it, having attentively observed the child (adult) during activity, for example during sports activities. The person will use more often in more active form only one of pair bodies: to make a start one leg; to aim, having blinked one eye, and another having left open; when it is badly heard, to turn to a sound source one ear, etc.
When training at school, of course, the most important is the characteristic of the leading hand as the kid should master such most difficult kind of activity as the letter. Therefore further it will be a question mainly of a levorukost, however it is impossible to ignore other types of manifestations of a levshestvo since they can also influence success of training of children.
we will turn to a question of the levorukost reasons Now. They can be different.
the so-called genetic levshestvo Most often meets. So far mechanisms of transfer of this sign are not known precisely, but it is authentically established that the levorukost by 10 - 12 times meets more often in families in which a lefthander is at least one of parents. At genetic lefthanders can not be any violations in development, then it is considered just individual originality, option of normal development.
the Second look is the “compensatory“ levshestvo connected with any damage of a brain, is more often - its left hemisphere. As activity of the right hand is generally regulated by the left hemisphere, in case of any trauma, an illness at an early stage of development of the child, the right hemisphere can undertake the corresponding functions. Thus, the left hand becomes leading, that is more active when performing household actions, and subsequently, most often and by the letter.by
At the child with violations of activity of one of cerebral hemispheres will observe almost for certain deviations in development of the speech, motility, etc. It should be noted that the levorukost in this case cannot be considered as the reason of these deviations. They, as well as a levorukost, are a consequence of the same reasons.
the Third look is the “compelled“ levshestvo. The choice of the leading hand at such lefthanders is usually connected with an injury of the right hand, but maybe result of imitation the family or friends.
Separately should consider a psevdolevorukost. To a certain age (it is final approximately by 5 years) at the child some of hemispheres it is formed as prepotent in relation to this hand (for example, right-handed persons have the left hemisphere). So occurs normal. But quite often also atypical mental development when in the relevant structures of a brain there is no development sufficient for the organization of specialization of hemispheres and their interaction among themselves meets. In such cases at children the dominating hemisphere in relation to a hand is not formed. Then the psevdolevorukost or, what is more often, approximately equal use of both hands is observed. If you have bases to assume that the levorukost (or “dvurukost“) your child of such nature, then is better to address experts and to organize special occupations for correction of mezhpolusharny communications. Often, through several occupations under the leadership of the psychologist, the child begins to write and draw without any coercion the right hand.
Krom of everything of the so-called “hidden levshestvo“ listed perhaps development in children, i.e. change of the dominating hemisphere. The moment of change is that critical period when the main functions of the central nervous system are evenly distributed between two hemispheres then the right hemisphere already begins to dominate. It is possible to call such people conditionally “mental“ lefthanders or the “hidden“ lefthanders in the sense that their signs levshestvo are not connected with domination of the left hand.
So, we were once again convinced that the category “levoruky children“ is not uniform at all and any stereotypes of perception can block from us the real child with his absolutely specific features. Thus, there is a question of legitimacy and need of studying of lefthanders per se. I think that the majority to agree that the phenomenon of a levshestvo needs to be studied, however it is necessary to consider versatility of this question.
we Will get acquainted with the main positions in the description of characteristics of lefthanders.
Now several views of natural abilities of lefthanders in comparison with right-handed persons exist. The first is based that indicators of behavior and nervously - it is worse than mental activity at lefthanders, than at right-handed persons. Supporters of this approach provide data on levshestvo frequency among patients with epilepsy, an oligofreniya, schizophrenia, hereditary alcoholism, and also the fact that, becoming adults, this face is saved by low adaptation opportunities, certain “fragility“ of mental activity.the Second approach approves by
equality of abilities of right-handed persons and lefthanders.
According to the third approach, lefthanders possess higher rates nervously - mental activity and great adaptation opportunities, than right-handed persons. It is proved by the fact that the lefthander constantly should adapt to the “right-hand“ world (really, take though such trifles as scissors or turnstiles in the subway created counting on right-handed persons). Correctness of this approach can be shown, having provided the whole list of great lefthanders among whom there will be Roman emperors Tibery and Julius Caesar, commanders Alexander of Macedon, Napoleon, scientists of Dzh. K. Maxwell, I. P. Pavlov, artists Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, writer Lewis Carrol, actor Charlie Chaplin, at last, U.S. President Clinton and many others.
Ya I think that all three views of abilities of lefthanders have the right for existence especially as in fact they correspond to the main concepts of emergence of a levshestvo and consequently, do not contradict, and supplement each other. Besides negative and positive properties of the lefthander can be two parties of the same medal. So, for example, there are data allowing to assume that communications between the departments of a cerebral cortex which are in different hemispheres at lefthanders, in comparison with right-handed persons, less rigid. Perhaps therefore lefthanders also show, on the one hand, higher creative abilities (rigidity of the settled communications can promote more standard thinking), and with another - formation of skills of the activity, slower in comparison with right-handed persons, demanding interaction of both hemispheres.by
the Russian scientists conducted research of the emotional sphere through perception of smells. By results of research the conclusion was drawn that pravoruky find big sensitivity to positive emotions, and for levoruky and ambidexters prevalence of negative emotions is characteristic, i.e. they are more pessimistic.
For more exact determination of specific features of levorky children needs to consider all set of asymmetries of the person. Therefore in modern psychology the term “individual profile of a lateralnost of the organization of functions“ (PLO) which designates a certain combination of touch and motor asymmetry is used.by
For definition of PLO (and thereby and identifications of a possible levshestvo) developed a technique which includes three groups of tests: for definition of the leading hand, the leading ear and the leading eye. Sometimes in addition define also the leading leg though this information is not included usually into the analysis of the received profile.to
based on the ratio of all three types of asymmetry revealed by this technique (“a hand - an ear - an eye“), 27 individual profiles where P - prevalence of the right function can be allocated, to L - left, And - equality of functions.
|PLO Options||the Characteristic of type|
|of PPP||“pure“ right-handed persons|
|of PPA of FATHERS of PAA PLA PPLPLP PLL||pravoruky|
|of AAA APP APA AAP ALL ALP AAL ALLis SCARLET||ambidexters|
|of LPP LPL LLP LPA of PAWS of LLALAL LAA||levoruky|
|of LLL||“pure“ lefthanders|
M. Armless provides interesting data on lower in comparison with an average the intellectual level and working capacity at both extreme options:“ pure lefthanders “and“ pure right-handed persons“.to
It is established also that the least successfully spatial tasks are performed by examinees with the mixed asymmetry type (PAL, PLP, FATHERS). Are most productive in spatial tasks of the person with moderately expressed pravorukost and high degree of prevalence of the right ear. Children with the expressed levshestvo find the low level of acceleration any (at will) upon transition with optimum to faster rate of work. >
it is natural to p to assume also other distinctions in abilities of lefthanders connected with asymmetry type.
Close attention of psychologists and teachers is attracted by a problem of school training of lefthanders. According to a number of psychologists, lefthanders experience special difficulties at adaptation to training in school. According to some authors, different percent of lefthanders among children with training problems at least by 2,5 times exceeds average figures at right-handed persons.
the Most often levoruky children meet difficulties when forming skills of the letter, reading and the account. The matter is that a starting point for development of these abilities is visual perception. Violation or insufficiency of development visually - spatial perception, a visual memory and visually - motor coordination, quite often meeting at lefthanders, lead to emergence of the following difficulties:
- of perception and storing of difficult configurations of letters when reading and respectively slow speed;
- of formation of a vision of letters, figures (violation of a ratio of elements, the child confuses letters, similar on a configuration, figures, writes excess elements or does not finish elements of letters, figures);
- of allocation and distinction of geometrical figures, replacement of figures, similar in a form (a circle - an oval, a square - a rhombus - a rectangle);
- of copying;
- unstable handwriting (uneven strokes, the big, stretched, raznonaklonny letters);
- mirror writing of letters, figures, graphic elements;
- very slow rate of the letter.
Would like to dwell upon the reduced rate of the letter and a phenomenon of mirror movements as the most often meeting and influencing success of training.When the child writes
, his activity consists from two serially replacing each other of stages: actually performance of the movement and micropause necessary for control of the movements, correction and programming of the following movement. Distinction in mechanisms visually - motor coordination at lefthanders and right-handed persons is shown first of all in various duration of these micropauses. Lefthanders have micropauses longer as at a skill formation stage, and subsequently when the letter is already automated. Often in school practice the teacher, seeking to develop skills of the fast letter at such children, begins to adjust them and when children - lefthanders hurry, it leads to reduction of micropauses, so necessary for control of the actions. Thus, quality of the letter worsens, there are different mistakes which can be treated by the teacher and parents as a carelessness.most of parents of little lefthanders are for certain familiar to
With a phenomenon of mirror movements. At someone it is shown in the form of the mirror letter (the child begins to write with a letter with which the word comes to an end, then writes penultimate etc., thus, if you apply a mirror to the written word, then you will see in a specular reflection in the traditional way the written word), but also mirror reading, mirror drawing, mirror perception meet. Adults, especially if they are right-handed persons, such features of the child can be perceived even as some kind of abilities, however, unfortunately, such manifestations often are only reflection of difficulties visually - spatial perception, the right - the left orientation, visually - motor coordination.
- the Frequency of the mirror letter at levoruky children, according to researches, makes 85%. However it is necessary to notice that the spontaneous mirror letter is found out that is a usual stage in mastering the letter in most of children aged from three till seven years. Elements of the mirror letter are noted also at children with an unstable pravshestvo: when mastering the usual letter the mirror letter at them can suddenly be shown when children are tired or inattentive.
- On numerous supervision, decrease in frequency of manifestation of the mirror letter and a total disappearance of this phenomenon is observed usually after 10 years as the phenomenon of mirror movements is closely connected with functional insufficiency of a calloused body which at this age reaches the functional maturity. If after the specified age of manifestation of mirror perception withare protected, it is recommended to carry out the careful analysis of a type of mirror movements, their reasons and to organize the special occupations correcting shortcomings of spatial perception, coordination, attention and skills of self-examination.
Along with the mirror letter at children rather often observe mirror drawing. The reversing when drawing is especially characteristic: the top and a bottom, vertical and horizontal, right and left are interchanged the position, and the child does not feel abnormality. Similar drawing is manifestation of a neusvoyennost by the child of the basic principles of the organization of space.needs to be told
also about violations of reading at some lefthanders. At one cause of infringement carry mainly visually - spatial character: children experience difficulties in perception of the word as whole. Others cannot catch communication between combinations of letters and those concepts which they display.One of explanations visually - spatial difficulties the unstable glazodominantnost can be
. The unstable glazodominantnost can lead to violation of movements of eyes, and it will be difficult for child to keep order of an arrangement of letters and words on the page. However it is necessary to add once again that the levshestvo in itself does not cause emergence of violations of reading.
Considering the difficulties arising at lefthanders when training at school it is necessary to concern a question of a reeducation of levoruky children. Though as it was told above, such cases becomes less, nevertheless adults who having faced difficulties of training of the child not similar to it meet, begin to doubt, but whether it is simpler to retrain the child and let all will be farther “as at all“. To prevent even such doubts, once again there is a wish to remind that it is not only about the leading hand, and about a certain organization of a brain. Therefore violations of speed and a rhythm of the speech (statistically, every third child with stutter is the retrained lefthander), serious changes in an emotional condition of the child can become consequences of a reeducation (he can become quick-tempered, whimsical, irritable, it is uneasy sleep, it is bad eat). There are even more serious violations later: frequent headaches, constant slackness. As a result neurotic reactions, for example, nervous tics, enuresis develop or the functional state nervously - the mental sphere is broken, i.e. neurosis, for example, a writing spasm develops.were specially studied by
of Display of neurosises at levoruky children.At levoruky children also school fears are frequent
(before failures at school, before written works), as a rule, in families where parents it is disturbing belong to a levorukost and consider that it can serve as an obstacle to progress in educational activity.
All aforesaid, in my opinion, convinces that it is impossible to try to change the nature as it is convenient to teachers and parents. Possibly, in this situation the best exit - to adapt to features of the levoruky child and to help it to adapt with the right focused world.
Unfortunately, in our country does not have scientifically developed technique of training in the letter of levoruky children yet, there is no technique of their work also at manual training (even scissors are necessary to it others). Therefore our lefthanders learn to perform all educational operations as well as right-handed persons. And all - exists a number of recommendations, realizing which in practice of school training such children can facilitate life:
- needs to help the lefthander to organize the workplace, to change a notebook inclination, position of forearms by the letter, it is correct to take the handle, to take care of that light fell on the right; should not demand
- from the lefthander of the right inclined letter, for them will directly write more expedient; >
- it is categorically contraindicated to li to demand from it the continuous letter;
- any physical actions needs to be displayed on elements, explaining step by step, each element has to be carried out consciously; >
- it is desirable for li to carry out special exercises, to play with the child the games developing visual perception and visually - motor coordination;
- needs to conduct work with parents of the levoruky child, explaining them causes and effects of features of their son / daughter, advising how to help the child to overcome those objective difficulties which are already available, and to keep mental and physical health of the child;
- never to show negative attitude to a levorukost, to use features of such child in a class for instilling in children of respect of specific features of each person, tolerance in relation to manifestation of the properties not characteristic in the majority.
in conclusion wants to be noticed with pleasure that the tolerance to dissimilarity in our country really gets stronger together with respect for specific features, and instilling of thought that each member of society has to have the opportunities favorable for development of its abilities and inclinations even if for this purpose it is necessary to use nonconventional ways. So the developing notebooks, copy-books and scissors for lefthanders are already available for sale, and on television in the summer actively congratulate all TV viewers on the International day of lefthanders which is celebrated on August 12.