Perennials from seeds. Way to success. Part 1
Even today`s richness of the market of seeds was difficult to be presented several years ago, and every year seeds it is offered more and more. Along with it also the choice of auxiliary materials and devices - from ware and special earth mixes to stimulators and means of protection extends. Availability of qualitative sowing material and technical means do cultivation of plants of seeds easy and attractive.
Before amateur gardening new prospects as seed cultivation is in many respects preferable open. This way proved as the most effective and rational long ago: from seeds receive the most perspective copies - healthy and strong, adapted to local conditions. Also the fact that it is quite available in usual garden conditions is important and will provide the fan with economic landing material. At the same time to grow up a plant from a sunflower seed and to bring it to blossoming - it is fascinating fascinating and instructive occupation in itself.
the Best way to get a healthy and strong plant - to grow up it from seeds the hands where to it to live. The key to success - to give to a seedling the chance at the beginning of the life to turn all forces on growth and development. From the gardener it will require to create good conditions crops, having minimized all adverse factors and that to help a young sprout to realize vital potential not in fight for a survival, and on prosperity.
the This is not about acquisition of the special equipment, about a construction of klimatron for realization of various methods of a prorashchivaniye - a task realizable and on the simplest material resources.
is important to be imagined accurately that each species of plants developed in the nature the individual scheme of reproduction by seeds though they are rather typical for the majority. These features can be very specific to narrow group of childbirth and types that, actually, and does one types usual, and others rare in gardens.
Among plants which are successfully grown up from seeds it is a lot of also grassy perennials. Undoubtedly, it is one of the most attractive to gardeners and summer residents group of ornamental plants, huge on scales and infinite on variety. Many thousands of types and grades of perennials give the huge choice of forms, colourings, the sizes, blossoming terms. And endurance and durability, a small prityazatelnost and not labor-consuming leaving do them irreplaceable.
Selection of methods of reproduction of perennials is a subject of close attention of many professionals and fans long ago. The wide experience, including and by the most highly specialized types on germination is saved up and systematized. Realization in culture of various ways of cultivation from seeds, to be exact nuances, quite on forces the enthusiast with even the minimum experience, needs only some stock of diligence, patience and attention. The general and private requirements in this plan for a set of types in general are universal and rather simple, and the formula of success is reduced to providing the corresponding conditions at different stages of germination of a seed and growth of a plant.
From a seed to a plant
the Most surprising property of seeds that bearing in itself a live germ they have the mass of devices for overcoming of adverse effects of external environment, for a timely exit from a condition of rest and successful germination. Ability of seeds to rest and readiness to sprout was developed at plants in the course of evolution as means to have an adverse season.the Foundation of bases of successful crops is laid by
in seeds. Major companies - suppliers made the name first of all thanks to the fact that deliver on the market quality seeds with the guaranteed viability determined by high viability and energy of germination.
the Question that this consumer indicator of quality of seeds - size changeable also tends to decrease in the course of storage. Terms and the modes of storage at all stages of passing on a commodity chain from the moment of collecting and packing before realization and crops, will define chances in a decisive way. The seeds is fresher, the higher them vitality, but here it should be noted that this rule has also exceptions. So, Acantholimom, an extensive sort of prickly pillow plants from Plumbaginaceae family for the second year after collecting has higher viability.we will note
At once that several childbirth of perennials has the seeds which are characterized by short terms of life and they are sowed at once after collecting to receive shoots next spring. Adonis, Aconitum, Azarum, Celmisia, Corydalis, Cyclamen, Delphinium, Dictamnus, Eranthis, Helleborus, Hepatica, Pulsatilla, Sanguinaria, some Meconopsis, Ranunculus belong to them. This feature at seeds of all Trillium is brightly expressed - for them very short term of life is noted. At the same time Verbascum sets absolutely opposite example, they are stored also 100 years!
It is extreme cases, average periods of storage of seeds essentially depend on conditions and the mode of storage. Loss of viability of seeds can come for only a few months if they are stored in damp air, both in warm, and in the cold room. On condition of maintenance of dryness of seeds and uniform moderate temperature seeds can keep viability several years. Packing of dry seeds in paper packages and the subsequent tight group packing in plastic bags, plus the household refrigerator with a temperature of 0... +4 º With, all this will provide good storage conditions.to
From physical characteristics of seeds it is interesting “grammazh“, quite often designated and on bags of seeds, showing quantity of seeds in 1 gram. There are seeds very large, for example peonies when in 1 gram hardly 10 grains. The figure in several hundreds gives an idea that it is seeds quite large, in one thousand - still not really small. Small seeds thousands in one gram are located already
by quantity of seeds in the grams necessary for receiving 1000 seedlings in catalogs of serious firms. Simple calculation it is possible to remove that the normal viability of qualitative seeds defined in such firms when testing in optimum conditions fluctuates from 50 to 90%. One more requirement to initial quality of seeds consists in their health, more precisely, in lack of pathogenic flora and causative agents of diseases. There is a number of chemical means for disinfecting of seeds, it is enough to mention of the simply and checked. This preliminary 15 minute protravlivaniye of 0,2% solution of potassium permanganate and processing by copper-bearing fungicides at the time of crops. At the same time it is impossible to miss from attention that the sowing substratum, irrigation water of stores, ware or the applied stock can become a source of diseases also.Some types of seeds are extremely indifferent for
to germination conditions, to their number just and the majority of weeds belong. Others are rather sensitive and demand accurate observance of conditions for germination. Fortunately, the vast majority of seeds of perennials willingly leave a deep sleep if consciously to follow several basic principles.
the Considerable variety of a structure of covers of seeds, biochemical and physiological features of their germs, leads also to certain methods of their crops. A number of ways of preseeding processing is applied though in a considerable number of cases of need for them is not present. They are rather various and selective for each case. All of them are directed to increase of vital force of seeds and acceleration of their germination. The knowledge of specific features of seeds and right choice of appropriate technology of their crops open a way to cultivation even of those types which earned to themselves bad glory by chronic failures at flower growers.germination begins
In culture in typical cases when external conditions are suitable for activization of growth processes: humidity, temperature and illumination. After contact with water the seed begins, absorbing moisture, to bulk up, and in it there is a complex of the difficult chemical processes conducting by the beginning of growth of a new plant. At a germination stage the major condition - maintenance of humidity of a substratum in which there are seeds. This problem is solved with the help of integumentary glass or film. Sometimes the required mechanical destruction of too dense covers of a seed (skarifikation) has an ultimate goal to provide access of moisture to a seed and its swelling. It is carried out by different techniques - incision, a mastication with sand, processing by a file etc. To the same purpose serves also soaking. At other reception, washing, also gradual removal from a seed of the chemical compounds constraining germination - inhibitors is reached, besides. At subwinter crops this role is successfully played by snow which covers crops.
the Range of temperatures at which there is a germination of seeds of different types lies in the range from 0... +1 º With to +20 º With and even above, it is also connected with a geographical origin - especially high temperatures are necessary, than to the south a plant. Night time temperatures even for thermophilic types can fall down a little without damage at night. A number of difficult types needs for germination influence low or alternation of low and high temperatures.
For some species of plants light is the factor destroying inhibitors, and germination of their seeds is possible only on a substratum surface. Is also such which, on the contrary, need darkness.Seeds of some plants even in suitable conditions do not sprout
or sprout slowly and give low interest of viability. The based seeds sometimes can lie in the soil the bulked-up state, without losing viability, within several years. By practice it is established that overcoming of deep rest happens at crops of seeds in the fall or during so artificial cold stratification - under the influence of long keeping of seeds at the lowered positive temperature (0... +7 º C) in the damp environment and at aeration. At the same time for different types duration and temperature of stratification are various. Germination after stratification begins at temperature increase, bigger or smaller. In certain cases warm stratification with the subsequent influence of the lowered temperature is required. In special cases apply also chemical levers on the based seed - germination stimulators.by
In the attached tables gave crops methods for many childbirth of long-term decorative grassy and expediency or need of application of this or that way of a conclusion of a seed from a condition of rest is noted.by
As if carefully did not implement all instructions, recommendations and councils for cultivation of plants, even qualitative seeds can not ascend. Lack of shoots can be caused by many reasons. A number of adverse effects can lead of the sprouting seeds to death among which the following is frequent:having overheated
- and drying of the top layer of earth from - for direct sunshine
- excess of moisture from - for insufficient water penetrations of a substratum and a bad drainage in sowing ware;
- unsatisfactory physical properties of soil (low moisture capacity and air permeability, excessive density, lack of sand, etc. mechanical inclusions);
- violation of hygienic norms of preparation of seeds and introduction of pathogenic microorganisms;
- use for a sowing substratum of the components containing sources of infections (the garden soil, compost, manure humus);
- toxicity of a sowing substratum when the “chernozem“ received from fields of an irrigation is used;
- obesity of a sowing substratum while for the sprouting seeds it is required poor;
- excessive deepening of small seeds at crops.
with prosperity of light, water, mineral food and air. The need for heat so actual at a germination stage, changes a little - the amount of potrebny heat decreases and there is a need for daily fluctuations of temperature. And, in particular, decrease it in a night-time. The main source of growth of newborn seedlings for photosynthesis without which their further life is impossible, - energy of a sunlight. Seedlings grow in good conditions quickly enough, and in addition to the cotyledons which appeared in the beginning the real leaves begin to develop. In case of absence or a lack of light to plants it is put essential, sometimes an irreparable loss - they are extended, exhausted and polegat, having turned into pale threadlike small stalks. If to take out seedlings on light, they will become green, but to compensate damage as a rule, it is very difficult - they are subject to diseases and death.
in process of development of senets the need for vital space when the zagushchennost of crops can become an essential obstacle for normal development of plants even at an optimum level of all other conditions begins to increase quickly. Very aggravates situation insufficient lighting and high temperature when in few days the seedling is extended to several centimeters and in the subsequent, even in the most favorable conditions from it the plant with defects develops. So negative consequences arise also at normal density of crops, but untimely sword-play when the competition for vital space begins.to
It is obvious that in room conditions when any of parameters does not correspond to requirements of seedlings, to provide such conditions is rather problematic - creation of special devices with use of artificial lighting and moistening, and also regulation of heat will be required. The subsequent movement of seedlings under the open sky from hothouse conditions of premises can appear so troublesome and even risky. >
It is represented to p more expedient to direct efforts to creation of a simple nursery or shelter for capacities with crops like a frame parnichk in a garden which will help to smooth sharp fluctuations of elements and to avoid many failures. It will be important help in spring months when germination of subwinter crops begins and considerably will simplify all technology of crops. Practice of prewinter crops under the open sky found many adherents as it is applicable for the vast majority of perennials and is especially effective in districts with a steady winter snow cover.
the Growing seedlings develop one by one the real leaves, accumulating biomass and in process of a growing become steadier against short-term deteriorations in conditions. At this stage of growth of their requirement remain the same, but existence of sufficient vital space when the competition between neighbors caused by mutual shading escalates becomes more and more important. Way to realize this requirement is sword-play with granting to a plant the respective area and volume of soil. If at the first stages of life the need of seedlings for mineral food was satisfied only at the expense of the nutrients reserved earlier, then now this requirement has to be satisfied at the expense of the new already enriched soil substratum. But on the first place there is a need for bright light. Other vital requirements of a plant after sword-play are optimum temperature for photosynthesis in the afternoon and lowered at night, uninterrupted water supply and air exchange.
the Final stage in life of a young plant - preparation for disembarkation to the constant place, to which a prepolevut a hardening which sense is reduced to a gradual priuchivaniye of seedlings to more severe conditions of an open ground.follows