Rus Articles Journal

On rubber to the course of

In October, 2008 opposite to Royal Academy of arts in London unusual Hummer H3 parked. In itself it practically did not differ from serial, but here wheels... Instead of cast aluminum disks on it there were wooden rims just as on vans of immigrants from westerns. And instead of tires - a rubber tape and that, probably, was made slightly less to roar on a stone blocks. The sculptor Mathew Herisson created this mobile sculpture to 5 - y to the Zoo Art Fair exhibition. Certainly, he did not even think to connect the engine to rare wheels (if there, of course, in general there is an engine under a cowl). Wheels of sesquicentennial prescription and the modern motor are technologically not combined so this “work of art“ can only “be carried for a string“.

From history

Strangely enough, but the pneumatic tire is more senior than the car. In 1846 the English engineer - puteets Robert Thomson took out the patent for the “an air wheel“ consisting of a chamber and a tire. Rubber then was not yet therefore Thomson suggested to sew a chamber from the canvas impregnated with rubber or gutta-percha, and to rivet the tire from pieces of rough skin, tightness was not necessary to it. Thomson managed even to sell a quantity of the wheels, but the goods which strongly outstripped the time did not bring to the engineer either wealth, or popularity.

the Real rubber tire appeared about 40 years later. They say that she is obliged by the rebirth to complaints of the son the Scottish veterinarian John Danlop to intolerable jolting when driving the bicycle. Allegedly the doctor used pieces of a rubber hose, having closed them in a ring, filling it at first with water, and then and air. How there was actually, but a № patent; 10607 of July 23, 1888 on “a pneumatic hoop“ fixed its priority, and cycle races of 1889 became Danlop`s triumph: the bicycle with tires surely bypassed all rivals!

remained to

Before emergence of tires for cars very little: in 1895 French Andre and Eduard Mishleny made the first-ever motor rally on “pneumatics“ from Paris to Bordeaux. And in 1903 engineers of the Goodyear company invented tubeless tires (though they went to a series only in half a century!) . In 1923 - the m efforts of the Continental company appeared a fabric cord, and radial it became thanks to the Michelin developers in 50 - x years of the last century. And, by the way, coming back to the English sculptor: not he one was inspired by wheels - Edouard Michelin graduated from the Parisian School of fine arts, however, on a painting class in due time...

the Steel spiral of dialectics

Let`s be had by

from the beginning of the 20th century to the day after tomorrow now. You are surprised, but there are no pneumatic tires any more! In 2005 in Detroit Michelin created a furor in couple of inventions. The first - Tweel - represents an openwork wheel on Audi A4 with the cast rubber protector providing necessary coupling with the road. Under it - the elastic and strongly deformable spokes making a noa - Hau of technology. Already saved 5% of fuel on tests of Tweel (due to smaller internal friction) and showed five times (!) higher lateral rigidity that led to extraordinary sharp response of the car when taxing.

by

the Second novelty - Airless - is mounted on traditionally rigid rim instead of the rubber tire and consists of an elastic steel spiral (almost like radial cord) which is not afraid not only nails, but also breakage of several rounds. If as developers promise, such wheels become fashionable“ by 2015, it is necessary, perhaps, “to let out the air“ from Bibenduma - the inflatable little man personifying Michelin, having replaced its rubber rings with steel springs.

So, to tires end? Not all are so unanimous in forecasts. Here, for example, on what project the Korean Kumho works: the tire and a wheel will remain, consider there, but will cardinally change. The protector is offered to be made of so-called electroactive EAP polymer which depending on road conditions and under the influence of the brought tension changes the properties. Really universal tire for summer and winter, a rain and dry weather will turn out!

the fastening of a wheel offered by Maglev firm to a nave Is even more interesting than

. Instead of bolts or nuts - a magnetic suspension bracket of a rim with a set of the powerful permanent magnets located opposite to the same set of the solenoids fixed on a nave. The wheel will rotate with an air gap without any friction at the expense of the running electromagnetic field. Such here suspension bracket and the motor in one wheel!

From heaven on the earth

A we come back now - from in today the day after tomorrow. With all sharpness search of ways of permission of an immemorial contradiction between various qualities of tires is on the agenda. To make a tire at the same time economic and well holding the road, perfectly braking and silent, suitable for the dry and filled-in with water asphalt - extraordinary complex challenge. Separately all problems are solved long ago, and here together...

However, and on this way progress is. For example, the new tire Michelin Energy Saver both serves longer, and brakes better, and reduces fuel consumption by 0,2 l / 100 km. The last indicator is recalculated in decrease in emissions of CO 2 on average for 4 g/km that today - the best recommendation for car makers in connection with the approved standards of the EU on these emissions. Actually in such profitability there is nothing surprising, you also can reach it if you pump up your wheels on superfluous a two-three of the tenth of the atmosphere. The result will soon show a board of the on-board computer. Here it is only necessary to go by the pumped-over tires very carefully: the brake way considerably will grow up. And tests of Michelin Energy Saver gave to the driver, on the contrary, a stock in additional 3 meters at a stop from the speed of 80 km/h!

to the Driver of the car the saved money is simply pleasant to

, but for firms - carriers it is serious argument in competitive fight: today to 27% of their expenses it is the share of fuel, it is approximately equal to wages fund of drivers. There are new tires Michelin X Energy ™ SaverGreen will come in handy with possible annual economy diesel fuel about a ton on the truck. Of course, similar works are conducted also by other tire grandees. For example, last year Goodyear showed the developments called by AirMax, FuelMax and Kmax. The first are intended for forward wheels and allow to increase run before replacement by 65 000 kilometers, a brake way - by 3% and to save a little on fuel. Other two put behind, but also they make the contribution to the budget of firm too - a carrier.

the “Hypodermic“ chip

the Curious innovation offered

Continental: having spotted as now implant electronic chips in covers of passports and under leather of pets, developers suggested “to zavulkanizirovat“ such sensor in an inside layer of the tire. But it is not just the identifier, but also the sensor of pressure of air and temperature of a tire. The mass of the device together with the lithium battery, to the employee is the whole five years, only 7 grams so the chip will not bring an imbalance. But now the wheel will report on a radio channel to the on-board computer all data on the tire: type, dimension, the recommended pressure, the maximum speed, a permissible load, date of production... And at the same time and actual parameters: temperature, pressure and even loading. According to these data the computer will be able even to reveal the freight which unexpectedly moved in the truck. Will limit the speed of the loaded car in turn. Will adjust headlights, will change setup of shock-absorbers. Experiments showed: ABS considering type and a condition of tires reduces a brake way by the whole meter!

I small bonus to the producer: it is possible to make so that on other, stereotyped tires the car will just refuse to go. So, some printers do not “accept“ others ink. Though owners of cars will hardly be delighted with this innovation.

to Whom nails are not terrible

?

Until recently two basic decisions to lower an accident risk at a puncture of the tire, Michelin which are thought up by experts (but used not only this firm) existed. One of them called by PAX System appeared about ten years ago. An idea essence - in the special light-alloy basic ring located on a rim in the tire. At a puncture the tire lays down inside on this ring which assumes loading. And the special form zakrain protects a wheel from a razbortovka.

the Second design of RunFlat maintains about 200 kilometers of run with a limited speed thanks to especially rigid reinforced sidewalls which are not allowing a tire to be flattened. For such tires it was necessary to find special rubber mixes, to change a rim form. And though with them the puncture is really not terrible, these tires are less comfortable on the run, transfer noise and vibrations from small roughnesses of a paving stronger.

here the last novelty from Goodyear called by Duraseal is arranged to

A in a different way: under a protector the layer of gel yellow rubber is located. In case of a puncture with a diameter up to 6 millimeters air squeezes out gel in an opening, corking it. Tests showed operability of the tire after 51 punctures - and any restrictions for range and speed of the subsequent run.

the Most special

to you had to see

what to the driver of the heavy truck to change a wheel? Here just right to be a weightlifter, but in case of career Caterpillar 797 B no muscles will help. Its tire Michelin 59/80R63 XDR - the biggest in the world also weighs... 5300 kilograms with a diameter of 4,03 meters! On its production 890 kilograms of a steel cord leave, and rubber would be enough for 600 car tires. For such tires the main indicator - a hodimost. Just because no jack will help to replace a wheel, the powerful crane is necessary here.

One more special area - tires for agricultural tractors. Here it is necessary to reduce at the same time as much as possible pressure upon soft soil and to provide high traction effort. The first is reached by selection of the thermostable rubber mix maintaining an overheat at the deformation caused very low - about 1 atmosphere - air pressure. And draft is provided by the developed gruntozatsepa which project taking into account their self-cleaning from damp dirt.

will not manage to Settle a tire subject within only one article to us. On rubber to the course now both racing race cars, and planes, where to tires the specific and interesting requirements. So it is more correct to finish our tire review would be dots...