A.S. Pushkin. From the letter L. S. Pushkina
in the I millennium was noticed BC that if the container with grape wine to leave open, then through
This late vinegar began to be done of vegetables, fruit, grain crops, honey, treacle, but the principle of production remained invariable: at first vegetable products subjected to spirit, and then acetic fermentation.
Ancient people quickly found for vinegar the most various application. Approximately in 5000 years BC. Babylonians began to draw vinegar on herbs and spices and to use it as preservative and seasoning. The Roman legionaries, having got to Egypt, learned to disinfect water, adding to it a little vinegar and to receive at the same time the drink which is well satisfying thirst. The myth how the queen of Egypt Cleopatra dissolved in wine or in vinegar pearls is still popular and drank this peculiar elixir for preservation of youth. The legend blowing the mind of inhabitants is hardly true as the pearls in wine cannot be dissolved, but it is possible - in strong vinegar. Extravagant acts were peculiar to Cleopatra, and it is quite admissible that she surprised and admired the Roman conquerors with the fact that dissolved large pearls, showing the wealth and power. But to assume that the queen of Egypt drank a glass - another of pearls solution in the strong vinegar capable to burn mucous a gullet and a stomach, difficult. It is rather everything, it is beautiful fiction.
Residents of antique Greece and Ancient Rome were able to preserve fruit, vegetables and meat by means of vinegar. Hippocrates whose works are the exhaustive review of medical knowledge of the 5th century BC, praised highly vinegar as the medicine capable to help the person with his fight against infectious diseases. Effect of the vinegar satisfying thirst and disinfecting wounds mentions sya and in the Bible.
When and as the Russian people got acquainted with vinegar, there is no mention, but the first written confirmation to the fact that it to them was well-known, is in the monument of literature of the middle of the 16th century known under the name “Domestic tyranny“ where it is told:“ To put vinegar from the best mash, to keep it carefully and in heat, to approach it in pure... To make sour four weeks, and even longer on the furnace and to put in that vinegar of honey treacle about a grivenka or more and to peas a little and a bucket to add wheat, but also the cranberry is put, and oak bark, and sometimes and iron“.
the Word “vinegar“ now are called by two absolutely different products. One of them carries the name “table, or spirit, vinegar“ and represents water solution of the acetic acid received by a sbrazhivaniye of water solution of alcohol or a synthetic way. Another is called “natural vinegar“, and receive it as a result of acetic fermentation of alcohol-containing liquids, such as grape wine, cider (low alcohol apple wine), a beer mash, the begun to ferment honeys and juice of various berries and fruit. In such liquids oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid happens thanks to enzymes of an acetic bacterium Acetobacter aceti. As a result in a ready-made product there is not only acetic acid, but also apple, dairy, lemon, ascorbic, a small amount of esters, aldehydes, pectinaceous substances and other organic compounds which impact to food vinegar special soft relish and pleasant aroma. The acetic acid divorced water received in the chemical way is completely deprived of such qualities.
the Fortress of natural vinegar makes 4 - 6%, table - 6 - 9%. At a bottle with natural vinegar there can be a natural deposit, with table - such deposit is impossible. And, at last, natural vinegar is more expensive table by one and a half times and more.
the Main component of food vinegar on which estimate its fortress is acetic acid - natural acid which participates in various exchange reactions in an organism. Acetic acid - an initial product of biosynthesis of fatty acids of which then fats and zhiropodobny substances (lipids) of the person, animals, plants and the sterols which are contained in cellular membranes of all live organisms are formed. Cholesterol of the person and animals and sitosterol of plants belong to sterols, for example.Is present
no basis to allocate any of natural vinegar on its medicinal properties as any of them possesses antimicrobic action at external application, stimulates appetite and improves digestion of food at the use inside. But it is not necessary to apply vinegar to treatment of any diseases and, moreover, in culinary business it is necessary to handle with it very with care. It is necessary to take for the rule to use only natural vinegar, avoiding application it where it is possible. Natural vinegar only at preparation of marinades is absolutely necessary and in very small amounts as the seasoning giving to salads, meat and vegetable dishes a juicy shade and causing desire to eat them.
should not use vinegar At all that who though in the slightest degree has problems with zheludochno - an intestinal path, especially if it concerns inflammatory diseases with the increased acidity. And it is absolutely senseless to drink it for “weight loss“, “removal of slags“ and “complexion improvement“ because vinegar is very nutritious and is that brick from which in an organism fat and cholesterol is synthesized, and pallor of the person after drink of vinegar testifies only to slight poisoning.
Among natural vinegar can distinguish the following types of vinegar.
Wine vinegar . Receive it by an acetic sbrazhivaniye of grape wine, ready vinegar has to contain less than 6% of acetic acid. Except acetic at it there are other organic acids, esters, aldehydes and numerous products of fermentation of wine. Classical wine vinegar from red wine is made from selected bordeaux wines (Cabernet, Merlot, etc.) . Such vinegar is long maintained in oak barrels thanks to what develops a unique taste and aroma. The Spanish wine vinegar is made of an Andalusian sherry. It has slightly wood aroma and amber color. It ripens in oak barrels within 12 years. In very small amounts it is added to any dishes where on a compounding vinegar is put, but it is especially good in sauces and salads.wine vinegar from white wine is famous for
for the Delicate perfume and refined, soft taste. For seasoning of salads this vinegar is slightly sugared.a Certain similarity of wine vinegar can prepare for
houses from dry wine for what it is heated on average fire until it does not decrease in volume three times. At desire add a little sugar to the received ropish liquid.
Fruit vinegar. Do of the rewandering fruit juice or of spirit or wine vinegar with addition of fruit juice or extracts of fruit. It is used for preparation of drinks, for acidulation of Russian cabbage soup, borsches, for seasoning of salads and vinaigrettes, preparation of sauces, mayonnaise, for conservation of vegetables and fruit.
of Plodovo - berry vinegar. Receive acetic fermentation plodovo - berry wine. Differs in good aroma and taste. Contains not less than 4% of acetic acid and no more than 1% of alcohol.
In our country apple cider vinegar is most popular . It gives to any dish easy sourness and a fresh smell. Apple cider vinegar in salads, soups, vegetable stews, stewed vegetables is especially good.
Apple cider vinegar, as a rule, the import product, domestic apple cider vinegar meets seldom.
Malt vinegar . Make of a beer mash which is exposed to a full sbrazhivaniye and has characteristic solomenno - yellow or light-brown color, a peculiar fresh aroma and soft pleasant taste. Contains 5 - 6% of acetic acid. Malt vinegar is very popular in England where with it prepare traditional English dishes, for example fish with fried potatoes (fish and chips). Use it and at conservation - gives to marinades brown coloring. Cheap malt vinegar is made cultivation of acetic acid to 4 - 8% and coloring of the received solution caramel.
White vinegar . Represents the purified malt vinegar with a peculiar smell and taste. It is preferable to marinades with spices which use at conservation of fruit.the Real white vinegar should not confuse
to the acetic acid divorced in water ; unfortunately, it is often called white vinegar.
Rice vinegar . Receive from rice grains in Japan, China, Korea and the countries of Indochina. Can have light or more dark coloring and sweetish, with a wood shade aroma. It is sweetened sometimes or insisted on various seasonings.
Rice vinegar less strong, than apple or spirit. It is used for seasoning of salads, preparation of tomato sauces, pickling of meat, and diluted with water - as soft drink.
Reed vinegar . It is developed from a sugar cane. Taste is thin, refined, sweetish. It is widespread in Indonesia, on Philippines.
a Specific place is held balsam, or balsam, by the vinegar which is considered among judges of good food as the best vinegar in the world. Initially it was used in the medical purposes, and only subsequently he strongly located in kitchen. In the past consumption of this refined vinegar was the privilege of a limited circle of the aristocracy and people with good prosperity. Balsam vinegar was used for a sdabrivaniye of the dishes prepared in a solemn occasion. It on drops was added to ready dishes or shortly before readiness that aroma did not disappear. Sometimes such vinegar was presented as expensive and rare gift.
For receiving balsam vinegar mature grapes is pressed and receive a mash which is filtered and stored in tubs at a low temperature to prevent process of spirit fermentation. Then the part of a mash is condensed, reducing its volume to 1/3 from initial, and other part is fermented at first to wine, and then to vinegar. Both parts unite in the barrels made of a larch where process of fermentation continues before obtaining the highest standards. Then vinegar is poured in oak barrels of rounded shape with openings for interaction of vinegar with air and maintain a long time during which its taste and a smell is formed. The ready balsam vinegar representing dense, more or less dark liquid with refined harmonious turned sour - sweet taste, unique aroma and containing 6% of acetic acid, spill only in glass company bottles.the Greatest and quite deserved popularity balsam Aceto Balsamiko Tradizionale vinegar which several centuries make of juice of white grapes in the territory of the Italian provinces Modena and Redzhio - Aemilia enjoys
. Its only “shortcoming“ consists in the price - from 300 rubles (for 50 ml) and above, depending on endurance. Cheaper Aceto Balsamiko di Modena vinegar is received, mixing a concentrate of grape juice, wine vinegar, caramel, sugar and aromatic substances. Usually it contains about 30% of juice and 6% of acetic acid and stands up from 30 rubles for 50 ml.balsam vinegar for marinades and gentle salad gas stations is Especially good
One of the most remarkable products
Toilet. It from good cologne with addition in certain proportions of ice acetic acid, essential oils, fragrant plants and extracts of fragrant spices prepared. Toilet vinegar was applied to wiping of skin of a body in the hygienic purposes as the deodorizing means and for reduction of a potoobrazovaniye in hot days, and also for scaring away of importunate insects.
As hygienic means the Cologne toilet vinegar which consisted of 49 parts of cologne and 1 part of ice acetic acid enjoyed the greatest popularity.
as the deodorizing means most often applied pine toilet vinegar for which preparation took 40 parts of cologne, 8 parts of ice acetic acid and 1 part of pine (fir) oil.recommended to use
For disposal of mosquitoes, flies and fleas the clove toilet vinegar consisting of 48 parts of cologne, 1 part of ice acetic acid and 1 part of clove oil.
with Toilet vinegar were moistened by whisky at a headache and allowed to smell at the faints caused by closeness and close clothes.
And “vinegar of four robbers“
many options of a legend of how during plague whether four robbers, whether four thieves sentenced to death whom the city authorities forced to clean and bury corpses from city streets survived Exist. Tell that it occurred in Marseille, Toulouse or London and at the same time call different years - the end
In all options of a legend to a certain means which they found in a certain place of the become empty city. Upon termination of epidemic to robbers declared that they will be pardoned if they reveal a secret of the rescue. According to stories of robbers, they were rescued by the drink consisting from... And here in different options of a legend the different structure was called. United them only one - in all cases means was prepared on vinegar, wine or apple. Drew it either on garlic, or on herbs among which the lavender, a wormwood, rosemary, a rue, a thyme and mint were called. However, evil tongues claimed that robbers found not vinegar at all, and large supplies of alcohol also used it immensely owing to what they were alcoholized through and therefore no plague to them was terrible. When time to explain a miracle of the rescue came, they, having been frightened of the fact that owners of wine shops which they diligent visited, will accuse them of theft again, claimed that drank vinegar.
So it was as it was told in a legend, or otherwise, but since 18th century in drugstores of the educated Europe, and then and Russia it was possible to buy means under the name “Vinegar of Four Robbers“ or “Vinegar of Four Thieves“. It was recommended to apply during epidemics of “infectious fevers“ or more terrible “morovy crazes“ inside and outwardly to wiping of a body, fumigating of rooms and disinfecting of various objects.
In France is still claimed that robbers who in the 16th century were forced to bury the victims of epidemic of plague are obliged by the rescue to vinegar, infused on garlic. But, probably, the ignoble smell of such potion which was suitable for rough noses of robbers in the 16th century in the XVIII century was already intolerable for sense of smell of representatives of higher sectors of society and therefore under the intriguing name enjoying popularity in drugstores began to sell vinegar, infused on garlic and aromatic herbs.needs to take
For preparation in house conditions of the improved “vinegar of four robbers“ on ancient technology 1 l of natural apple or wine cider vinegar and on two tablespoons of the crushed fresh herbs of a lavender, rosemary, a sage, wormwood, a rue and mint. To place herbs in a large bottle, to fill in with vinegar, to mix, close properly a stopper and to sustain on the sun within two weeks then to open and put six garlic gloves. To close again, to properly shake up contents and to put on the sun for a week. To filter, to pour in a pure bottle and to close a stopper.
“Vinegar of four robbers“ and from the modern point of view, undoubtedly, possesses strong antimicrobic action against which at least one causative agent of numerous diseases will hardly resist, but it is recommended to apply such “potion“ only outwardly as except vinegar are its part two quite poisonous if to accept them inside in large numbers, herbs - a wormwood and a rue.
Concerning that how many it is necessary to put garlic in vinegar to make “that“ “vinegar of four robbers“, various opinions exist. It agrees to one of them - the more the better, agrees to another - quite good to observe a measure, but here what - history did not inform us.