Rus Articles Journal

Combat sports. Training of children of karate of

Before speaking about an opportunity or impossibility of training in style karate of small children aged till 7 years, let`s try to understand that represents style karate as object of studying that is represented by the child as the subject of training and what it differs in this plan from the adult in.

of Karate is one of the Japanese systems of self-defense. The basis of a technical arsenal of karate is made by blows hands and legs, but along with it the equipment of throws (are nude - a vase), painful impact on joints (a kansetsa - a vase) is used, blows to the vital points of a human body, etc.

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throughout centuries of formation and practice of karate it was transformed to martial art by synthesis of equipment with the philosophical, ethical and esthetic principles on which the Japanese culture was based.

Having laid

aside filosofsko - ethical aspects, we will talk about equipment. Karate occupations, as a rule, begin with training in equipment. All technology of karate is based on sharpness of the movement and on concentration of the energy at the right time giving to blow power. The movements have to be power economical and optimum from the point of view of biodynamics. To develop such type of movements, not only the understanding of their mechanism, but also withdrawal pains of the motive stereotypes which developed by the time of the beginning of training is necessary.

the Program of training of karate consists of three obligatory sections: kikhon, kata and kumita.

Kikhon is the attacking and protective movements and their combination allocated from a kat basic on the basis of various technology of movements.

Kat`s

- the formalized complexes which execution in karate is standardized.

Kumite`s

- exercise with the partner, fight with the opponent.

All three sections are studied by

in parallel. The person not only who is physically well prepared (trained), but also having the developed intelligence and certain traits of character can step over student`s level in style karate. Effective and rather fast process of training of karate can be in case engaged it is capable not only to storing, but also to the analysis and self-correction.

let`s try to understand Now that from the program of style karate small children can acquire. Let`s note at the same time some features of children`s perception.

Ordinary children, not child prodigies (and such the vast majority), and them we teach karate, are not capable to difficult logical constructions. Their level of thinking and is called - prelogical. They perceive only a reality. If you want that the perception of the small child was accurate i.e. that he remembered all details, the volume of information offered it has to be very small. The child remembers information figuratively therefore it has to be presented to him in the form convenient for this purpose. In what, depends on a way of perception of the specific child. This way can be established by supervision or special testing for identification of a modality (a way of perception and storing).

people - including small children at whom it is especially strongly expressed - are divided

On a way of perception and storing into the so-called visual learners (who are perceiving generally visually, memorable a vision), the audial (perceiving generally from the words which are memorable a speech image), and the kinestetik (perceiving generally through the movement, with well developed “muscular“ memory). There is still the fourth group - diskretnik who do not belong to one of these groups, but it is not enough of them, and in the practice we did not face them.

When classes are given by

in group, in this group there will be owners of different modalities. Therefore on occupations of karate it is necessary not only to show, but also to describe words each movement. At the same time it is necessary to use an image clear to the child. If someone from children all the same misunderstands nothing and does everything, so most likely, before you kinestetik. It is necessary to approach it, it is correct to deliver it legs and to make it hands or legs the required movement, to let to it know how muscles work. It is necessary to show and give the chance to feel what this movement is necessary for. If the movement is well experienced, kinestetik will remember it very strongly, it is even better, than the visual learner or audiat in spite of the fact that “reaches“ it more slowly.

Distinction of modalities - one of the reasons for which with children it is possible to be engaged karate productively only in small groups - no more than 10 people on one instructor. Almost each child requires personal attention and an individual approach. It is much easier for p to train in

the adult at whom the conceptual framework is created, it is developed the logician and ability to structure material which is able to operate the attention (yes, by the way, small children are not able also it, and their attention should be operated for them) who has a motivation to training (at children the motivation happens seldom, at best parents have it, and the child just suddenly “wanted“ and in an hour “was ceased to want“) and strong-willed control (at children it in mention is not present, is only mood which training should be created). Besides the adult himself knows that he should make to remember information - he already intuitively developed the technology of storing corresponding to features of his perception. Therefore the adult can offer material, rather big on volume, for assimilation. For the same reason studies with adults can be continued about two hours, and with kids - usually it is no more than an hour. The most part of occupation has to pass in a type of games, information loading should be increased gradually.

the Child perceives information completely. For example, absolutely small child can not understand the words addressed to him, but he, most likely, will understand the general sense of the address. The matter is that the main part of information goes not verbally, i.e. besides words. The adult, thanks to the experience of verbal communication, begins to comprehend words first of all. And the kid first of all will apprehend intonation, a mimicry, gestures, a pose (so-called, “a body hieroglyph“), a voice timbre etc. And at once will understand that the adult will be reached by a time later. For example, “this uncle pretends to be angry, and actually - kind“, or “the aunt wants to seem kind, and actually - bad“. Not because so clever child, and adults there are fools but because he is not capable to analyze other layer of information so far properly. Specially trained adult can analyze nonverbal part of information too, but, unlike the child, is comprehended operating this process.

from this can draw the following conclusions.

First. If the instructor comes to occupation to children`s group in bad mood or badly feels, cannot concentrate, experiences negative emotions, children instantly will feel it, and it will become impossible to operate group. Therefore self-checking of the instructor which conducts occupations with small children has to be ideal.

Second. Small children at whom the organs of articulation are not developed adequately yet - i.e. to 4 - summer age - can be learned, of course, simple things including to prepare for karate occupations. But such preparation can be carried out only individually.

the Children`s perception differs, as we know, in brightness. We speak: freshness of perception. Let`s try to analyse this phenomenon. What does it mean - brightness and freshness of perception? Actually everything is quite simple. The child has yet no world picture which inherently is a template. Including - a perception template. Between the perceived images and the phenomena the child did not establish connection therefore the world seems strange, surprising yet, is fascinating interesting therefore images are literally pressed in memory. Remember yourself: what to you it is remembered best of all? What surprises and strikes. What is followed by strong emotion. And so, the child is surprised by everything, and everything is followed by emotions. Therefore also impressions at it bright. But what the child already knows about what is it about what explained to him that it is “so and so“, ceases to cause interest and to draw attention. In the childhood templates develop very quickly, and they are extremely strong.

Therefore, in - the first, on occupations with small children should not repeat repeatedly the same exercise in the same form at all - you just will not force children to do it properly, they will carry out it purely formally as already “all know“ and to them is uninteresting.

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In - the second, needs all - constantly to come back to passed, showing to children that they know about it not everything - it is desirable in such form to be surprising or an emotional response to children.

B - the third if the child already had the wrong template, for example, of performance of any movement, should put it in such conditions in which he will not be able to use this template and it will be forced to control the actions.

For example if the child, carrying out May - Gehry to a keaga (a biting kick forward), does not bend a leg in a knee, can be put before it an obstacle (bench) or to put the partner at a certain distance, at the same time so that the child could not depart back - for example that behind the back there was a wall. Then, not to be hooked for an obstacle, it will be forced to bend a knee at a move a leg.

of Karate as we already spoke, does not treat simple disciplines. The judgment very much facilitates and accelerates performance and storing of movements. The better process of thinking is structured at the person, the it is easier to teach it to karate. It is easier to teach people with technical education to karate, than humanists, it is probable from - for peculiar to them thinking accuracy. Any approximateness in karate is unacceptable.

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Widely use also other way: gradual judgment in the course of performance, as result of repeated repetitions. In other words - “do until you understand“. But anyway, to study karate, the understanding is necessary whether it will be the starting moment or will appear as a result.

That at the child training process more - to less difficult actions “went“, presence at it is necessary:

Without it training in difficult objects is impossible for

. Integrity of perception and brightness of impressions - it is remarkable. But without understanding of interrelations, without ability to differentiate and integrate - in other words to break into components and to make of parts whole, without ability to concentrate nothing will go in. Therefore learning ability at the child should be formed. From - for features of children`s perception and thinking training of children - process much more labor-consuming and long, than training of adults.

of Karate is called art. It is possible to call, of course, art the drawings 5 - summer the child, but even if he is talented, you will not put them in one row, say, with “Highest wave“ of Ayvazovsky. It is possible to call them exercises in drawing rather. In the same way and we are engaged with children not of karate per se, and the bringing and forming exercises, including basic equipment. Because the basic equipment in karate in fact too is the forming exercises. None of highly qualified specialists of karate fight basic equipment - other trajectories, speeds and a rhythm are for this purpose necessary.

of Karate can be considered as science in some way. Science which the person adapts not only for the mind, but also for the body. And itself at the same time adapts to it: learns the body to work on science.

Any instructor of style karate knows that the equipment neither in late, nor at early age is not reached by “naturalness of the movement“. The natural movements for the child, as well as for any person - those which he got used to make in the everyday life preceding karate occupations. That is the movements with coordination, habitual for it. And habitual coordination at many kids such that they and cannot carry a spoon to a mouth, without having spilled.

, of course, children, dexterous by nature - unfortunately Are, their minority, - but coordination of movements of karate for children is absolutely unusual though it also is optimum from the point of view of biodynamics. For example, the direct stroke a hand is a training product, but not the natural movement. The equipment of such blow should be acquired, using the special bringing exercises. In the same way it is necessary “to put“ equipment of racks, movements, blows by legs, the blocking movements etc. It is a hard work, both for the child, and for the instructor. But when coordination of karate becomes habitual, the movements both look, and are felt more natural, than at the person unexercised. It belongs to any kind of specialized activity. Here also it turns out that naturalness is a product of fitness. And spontaneity - result of naturalness.

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to karate Occupations is very much disturbed by banality. With children in this plan there are more problems, than with adults. We can be objected: how so? The adult always possesses a large number of templates, he for the life saved up them so many that to the child and did not dream. And, nevertheless, it so. Because the adult can realize the templates and is conscious replace them or transform, and the child is not capable of it. For it everything should be done to the instructor, it is necessary to use a set of special exercises for formation of new types of movements. At the same time the wrong templates “stick“ to the child instantly and if there is a template - the movement stops being conscious and does not give in to control. Otucheniye of the child from the wrong performance which already became habitual for him - occupation very labor-consuming. Therefore all basic movements forget with children on divisions, with intermediate phases and control on each site of a trajectory. By means of special exercises work of all parts of a body is synchronized.

For kids strong-willed control of the movements of peripheral parts of a body - hands and a foot of legs is always especially difficult. At most of children of a hand from wrists to finger-tips and a leg below a shin exist as if in itself, children it is necessary to teach to feel these muscles and to operate randomly them. If the instructor does not pay it attention, the majority basic the technician will be carried out by children incorrectly.

the Instructor has to understand and teach it children that there is a scheme of performance of movements, and there are concrete options depending on situations. Otherwise further the child will have problems with variable use of equipment and with perception of various modifications different from basic option.

the Same approach has to be developed by

at children and in relation to a kat (the specialized formalized exercises) which cannot be considered as a template at all. More likely, they can be compared to hieroglyphs.

the Hieroglyph is the symbol comprising several semantic layers. In the same way a set of semantic layers - ways of treatment and application - each kata has. Without having been occupied with karate of N - Nov the number of years and not having adapted this and all previous a kata for the body and reason, it is impossible to learn to execute it correctly - i.e. it is comprehended and is technically competent. Behind intelligent and technically competent execution of a kat there is an understanding that the kata in karate is not an anachronism, but a method of training in the biodynamic principles of karate, plasticity and rto itm.

we Will sum up of

the result. In spite of the fact that karate cannot be referred to simple things in any way, it is possible to be engaged with small children in style karate, it is necessary and it is useful.

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In - the first, working accurately, it is possible to develop and improve considerably natural data of the child - for example, flexibility, mobility of joints.

In - the second, it is possible to correct shortcomings of its coordination and to correct defects of development it oporno - the motive device, for this purpose there are special exercises.

Thus, it is possible to relieve the child of physical defects which would impose restrictions for its equipment. At later age such shortcomings should be compensated, using more available equipment from a karate arsenal.

Can also be mastered with the child basic equipment and to learn protozoa student`s a kat. On it 3 - 4 years will be required (to the adult - 1 year), but it will create prerequisites for a rapid progress further. For the child who is engaged long enough (several years) coordination of karate becomes habitual, i.e. natural; besides, very important skill - fast and intelligent assimilation of new coordination is developed.

the Child learns to breathe correctly that too is very important for karate, and to pass also quickly from tension of muscles to their relaxation and vice versa. Children are usually more relaxed, than adults therefore if the equipment at them is well put, the speed of movements at them is higher, than at adults. For training Shutuokan karate where all equipment is constructed at a speed, coordination and concentration at the right time, it it is expedient to use.

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Besides, occupations by style karate under the leadership of the qualified instructor stimulate intellectual development in children - learn to focus attention, develop memory, teach the child to use features and to compensate shortcomings of system of representation peculiar to it (a way of perception of information), take away from stereotypic thinking, develop both logical, and figurative thinking, etc.

of Occupation by style karate influence formation of character of the child - he becomes more self-assured, studies restraint, self-checking, commitment. The child will understand that the respect of people around can achieve only work and adequate behavior. It is noticed that in children`s group not those children who try to draw in the various ways attention to themselves have the greatest authority - such just do not take seriously, - and the most diligent and at the same time quiet which have the best equipment.

We constantly repeat the words “style karate“. All aforesaid does not belong to karate so-called “just“ “, extra style“ karate - to, to “contact“ karate, the Russian karate etc. It is possible to understand karate differently and to give it different definitions, but the basic principles of karate have to be observed, otherwise it will be not karate.

If the child is regularly engaged in

and sufficient time, result always is, irrespective of basic data. High-quality changes are usually shown after a year of occupations. Steady results can achieve for 2,5 - 3.

we mean By results first of all substantial increase of learning ability (that is caused by withdrawal from habitual stereotypes of perception, thinking and movement, to development of control of attention), then - possession of basic equipment, increase of mental stability, correction of behavior. To most of children that the result was expressed, additional individual classes are required, it is good if the instructor has an opportunity to carry out them.

concerning expediency of occupations by single combats at early age can add the following. First of all parents should be defined - what they want for the child. If they want that he grew up healthy, bright, became more plastic, learned self-control and exercises in which he will be able to be engaged for maintenance of health and a good form all life, became quieter and self-assured, then the child needs to be sent to style karate to the good instructor (but not to the champion). From boxing classes at the child of health and ingenuity, you understand, will not increase (I have, for example, information that about 80% of Masters of Sports in boxing consist on the account in psychiatric clinics) and nobody will take the child in the box from 5 years. In general usually take in sport of children from 10 - 14 years, and not everything but only “perspective“. The technique of training of the athlete is constructed on development of natural qualities, but not on education of necessary.

to us it seems to

, it is more expedient to teach the child to in what he will be able to be engaged all life. Do not stop being engaged in style karate because of “age unfitness“. If engaged ceased to participate in competitions, it does not mean that it ceased to be improved in equipment. At all between progress in karate and participation in competitions there is no direct dependence. It is possible to derive huge advantage and pleasure from occupations of karate at any age, at the same time occupations of karate do not disturb, and promote cerebration. All famous masters of karate lived long life (on their belief, thanks to karate occupations) and practiced karate all life. Modern large masters, such as Kanazava, Asai, Enoyeda, to Kaza, Kenneth Funakoshi and others, in this plan differ in nothing from them. And here the being athletes (all athletes inevitably eventually become former) cannot usually brag of good health and except health at them many problems.