Habits change genes of
When we do not watch excess weight or we get addictions, we spoil life not only ourselves, but also future generations. Why and as it occurs, the new science of an epigenetik explains.
Until recently scientists believed that our way of life, the food, habits and character do not influence genes of future posterity in any way. But in recent years it turned out that it not so! Careful researches of a way of life of one-egg twins and family clinical records showed: how there lived our parents and primogenitors, depends, than we will be ill and even our children and grandsons.
the New science does not cancel genetics. That still knows actually genes. And here how genetic information is realized in cages, the epigenetika knows.the Gene can include or switch off
of Research showed: the gene as a bulb, can stay in two states: switched on and off. This state is defined by a changeable epigenom - a set of molecular mechanisms which regulate manifestations (expression) of 30 thousand genes in different cells of our body.
For example, at nervous cells, cells of a pancreas and muscles an identical set of genes. However the first synthesize only neuromediators, the second - insulin, and the third - muscle proteins. It is also result of an epigenetika: the expression of one genes is activated, others, on the contrary, is suppressed. In this example it occurs in the course of an embryonal development.
But the epigenetika constantly changes also at adults: our way of life, addictions, food influence on epigeny, so and our health and heredity. In gametes all epigenetic markers on genes remain so the child adopts a picture of the “silent“ and active genes.
the Vitamin changing destiny
the American scientist Randi Dzhirtl was the first who showed: hereditary information is transferred epigenetic. He created the artificial gene called agut and managed to build in it a genome of an ordinary mouse. This site of DNA not only turned gray small animals in ognenno - yellow, but also did them corpulent and painful on many generations.
But effect of a gene of an aguta as it appeared, it is possible to erase completely, without having rewritten any letter in a hereditary code. The scientist was to put future mothers of little mice into the diet enriched with folic acid (B9 vitamin) and metioninovy amino acid enough. Both of these substances are rich with so-called metilny groups (CH3) - markers of an epigenom which, joining DNA, regulate activity of genes.Metilny groups are capable “to repair“
not only mouse epigeny, but also human. The organism all the time needs their new portions - cages constantly share. Both folic acid, and metioninovy amino acid are not produced in our body therefore have to arrive constantly with food (so, there is a lot of them in vegetables and fruit) or from vitamin complexes.
However, too it is not necessary to be fond of the last. In the USA many scientists sounded the alarm when in the market there were high-concentrated preparations, so-called “donors of metilny groups“. The matter is that in an organism everything has to be thinly balanced. Scientists do not know yet what genes have to be active and what, on the contrary, are suppressed, and the most important, when and where. Therefore the rash rating of an organism CH3 superdoses - groups is risky.
Green tea and garlic prolong life
the New science forced to look at dietology canons with a fresh pair of eyes. It turned out that many products, and earlier known for the useful properties, influence also on epigeny.
- the Daily physical activity equivalent to at least 30 minutes of fast walking.
- of 200 mkg of B9 vitamin (folic acid), especially pregnant, elderly, and also that who actively is engaged physical and brainwork.
- of Any tobacco during life, less than one glass of wine a day. Antibiotics and other strong drugs - only in case of real need.
- Low-calorie menu, restriction of saturated fats, transfats and sugars; it is a lot of greens, vegetables, fruit, enough proteins, polynonsaturated fats, an omega - 3 - acids.
- Absence of stresses at work, joyful family life.
- Accommodation in ecologically faultless place.
For example, the main catechin of the Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) green tea reduces risk of many oncological diseases by 50 - 70% if to use
a question whether life can prolong garlic? One of the main scientific hypotheses of aging today - accumulation of an oxidative stress in cages as a result of which free radicals destroy DNA, proteins and fats. Researchers decided to consider those genes which control this process. For this purpose tested blood of 13 elderly people about a month of the use of garlic in number of 0,1 g
Appeared also new data on harm of products with the high content of pesticides, preservatives and food dyes. For example, in 2009 scientists from university in New - Jersey proved that the insecticide a metoksikhlor (DDT) not only causes mutations of genes in spermatozoa and ova, but also influences on epigeny. And it is even more dangerous than the first. The matter is that the serious mutation of genes most likely will not be transferred in gametes to posterity: the defective embryo will not be able normally to develop and will die in mother`s womb. Defects in an epigenoma can “be silent“ till certain time, and be shown fully already at the child or even the adult.
But the most part of opening in the field of an epigenetika and food still ahead. Why today the world endures obesity epidemic? Here one of hypotheses: mother`s overeating before pregnancy and during it causes epigenetic changes in posterity.
the Theory were confirmed by experiences on mice: the overfed females every time brought forth even more corpulent offspring, and it was fixed in a genome.
However, also antidote is. Reduction of consumption of calories by only 25% makes active a set of genes in cages, especially in mitochondrions, our power stations. It influences practically all processes in an organism: from strengthening of cell regeneration before activation of immune system and decrease in inflammatory processes. And the Swedish scientists proved: occupations on the ordinary exercise bike within only 6 weeks activate 470 genes. And not only the muscle and bone cells but also interfering development of diabetes and it is warm - vascular diseases.
Alcohol includes oncogenes
In healthy cells the oncogenes starting process of formation of a cancer tumor are switched off. But scientists proved that ethyl aldehyde of alcohol does not allow metilny groups to join DNA. As a result the “sleeping“ oncogenes join and begin to work, turning healthy cells into cancer.
Alcohol it is irreversible switches off thousands of genes. Recently at university of Texas counted quantity of the genes suffering at chronic alcoholics in prefrontal area of a brain, the most vulnerable at abuse of alcohol. Scientists found 163 abnormally active. Alcohol as if dries up a brain - nervous impulses of different neurons begins “to korotit“, problems with memory, attention and emotions from here.
to avoid negative influence of alcohol on genes, physicians recommend not to use more
of the Cigarette are changed by 600 genes. Smoking is dangerous not only to the smoker, but also to his future posterity. And not only during pregnancy as was considered earlier. So, the researcher Markus Pembrey from institute of children`s health at the London university determined such consistent pattern: if the man began to smoke till 11 years, then his future sons have the increased risk of development of obesity. The reason is that tobacco also breaks thin balance of regulation of an expression of genes.
A in 2007 scientists from BMC Genomics institute compared the tissues of lungs taken from the getting stuck smokers and from people who never smoked. About 600 changed genes which worked incorrectly were established. Fortunately, the most part from them comes back to norm if to leave off smoking - the earlier, the better. But all the same about 120 genes remain changed even 10 years later after refusal of cigarettes.
you Want healthy children? Change
If we want to have healthy and strong children, then and have to be such. Similar generates similar - the law of the nature and epigenetika. Smoking is generated by smoking, aggression - aggression... Such is a vicious circle. That to break off it, be not afraid to change yourself. We are not hostages of own genes. Especially for us the opening - an opportunity to influence the future through epigeny is left.