Reading children and teenagers in Russia at the turn of the century. Began part 2
On a change of centuries in reading children and especially teenagers and youth various magazines became especially popular. The active address to the periodical press of children and teenagers begins already at younger school age, but especially it amplifies to teenage age. And it is frequent children and teenagers buy the periodical press independently. In
Comics and “Disney`s“ magazines are popular
with readers of younger school age, especially with boys. At the same time the magazines created especially for children are popular with girls, also as well as magazines and animals and about the nature more. In recent years many children and teenagers are attracted by such editions as crossword puzzles, skanvorda, puzzles, and in different age groups. In comparison with girls boys are focused on more wide and various range of periodicals whereas girls much prefer the editions of entertaining and applied character focused on female audience.
One of our last researches which is carried out a year ago showed that there is growth of reader`s audience of the periodical press. Even those groups of children and teenagers who are focused on book culture and visit of libraries like to read magazines of mainly entertaining character. Such magazines as “COOL“, “Hammer“, etc. are especially popular. But many buy “what will get“. At those who are younger children`s magazines “Klepa“, “Pipe“, are for those who are more senior, - “Cosmopoliten“, “Age-mate“, and also the Argumenty I Fakty newspaper in demand. At reading there are also “television“ magazines and newspapers (“The color TV“, “Seven days“, “Antenna“, etc.) . The part of teenagers called also editions of informative character - “automobile“, and also “computer“ magazines.literature Sources
If magazines are often bought by
, and sometimes undertake teenagers in libraries, then are sources of obtaining books, generally home, and also public and school libraries. So, according to the mentioned poll of pupils in various regions of Russia (2001), in 43% of cases school students read books from the home library. On the second place there was a public (public) library (18%), on the third - purchase (16%). Teenagers, young men and girls also take books from friends, and with age the share of this source increases more than three times (from 6% to 21%), it takes at readers of advanced age the second place after a home library. On the last place among sources of obtaining books - school library which every ninth school student uses approximately. In general the cumulative share of all “house“ sources of obtaining books makes about 60%, a share of libraries - about 30%. to
At the same time, in the library province often serve for children and teenagers as almost only sources of obtaining books. In the last decade the problem of completing of libraries extremely became aggravated. Unevenness in distribution of book resources remains, and often in process of removal from the central Russia distribution channels work worse and worse. At the same time, needs of school students for new, actual literature sharply increased that is connected not only with changes in reading, but also with the continuing reform of school. However, as we spoke above, the school library is a source of books only for every ninth pupil. Thus, in many regions. Russia inquiries of children and teenagers often remain unsatisfied.the school student would like to read
Quantity of various subjects on which children need books, hugely. It would seem that literature on these subjects is published much. But from - for the fact that it does not get to regions children experience extramental them “book hunger“. However specifics of this reader`s group are that the book is necessary to them “here and now“, children cannot as adults to postpone the unrealized requirements for the future, they just switch to other means of communication and ways of carrying out leisure.
For libraries to one of options of such “replacement“. According to the specialist of the Russian State Children`s Library (RSCL) N. M. Makarova, the periodical press allows libraries to meet lacks in book fund, to quickly satisfy queries of readers. In many libraries the periodical press leaves overwhelming part of new receipts. In some regions the subscription through Rospechat agency - a row of years was almost only a completing source. From the point of view of N. M. Makarova, among the editions addressed to children and teenagers, about 40% make editions of entertaining character; 50% of editions have educational character, and only the tenth share of all publications is related to the self-educational and developing reading. This ratio reflects orientation of the market to mass “entertaining“ and educational demand at the minimum educational potential. But children`s libraries especially need the books promoting development of the identity of the young reader, his self-education.Videokultur`s
and children`s reading
In today`s situation process of socialization of the personality becomes especially difficult. Along with the main social institutes of education and education - a family and school - in it the increasing role is played “by electronic “tutors“. The television continues to play a significant role in life of children and teenagers. Within the last decade it is the most widespread way of carrying out leisure at most of children and teenagers, both in the city, and in the village, and wins first place in the list of daily leisure occupations. The repertoire of programs and transmissions which are watched by teenagers is wide and various. School students like to watch comedy shows, transfers about travel, adventures, about the nature and animals, younger prefer animated films, senior - musical programs and news of sport. They like to watch TV series and feature films (and mainly foreign). Many teenagers are active fans of games, competitions, quizes. Thus, the television is both education, and rest, and entertainments. It is also a source of commercials, full cliched images - stereotypes. Movies, series and commercials set certain rules and behavior models, influence consciousness and subconsciousness.in recent years we collected with
data on how the electronic culture influences reading children and teenagers. From our point of view, this influence is shown in the following:
- the perception of the printing text and information changes, it becomes more superficial and fragmentary, “mosaic“, “clip“ (owing to what it is harder and harder for child to concentrate attention on the multipage text, especially - stories and novels);
- the motivation of reading and repertoire of reader`s preferences changes (for example, under the influence of television and video viewings interest in subjects and genres which are widely presented on a TV screen and in a video hire shop - to detective stories, thrillers, “fantasy“, “horrors“, “film novels“ amplifies); the preference is given by
- to printed materials with widely presented video series (popularity at children and teenagers of illustrated magazines and comics from here);
- “block-making“, simplification and a posterization of the speech as children do not master language of classical heritage (including language of the Russian and foreign classics which made considerable part of repertoire of reading children and teenagers earlier) occurs.
Because both the repertoire of modern book publishing, and repertoire of telecasts are focused on extremely topical works of mass demand, it is not surprising that in reading children and, especially, teenagers, extremely topical entertaining literature, and also the works written according to scripts of series and movies (“film novels“) dominates.
So, since the end of the last century children and teenagers especially popular had “Children`s Detective Story“ and “Black Kitten“ series today interest in comics which share in repertoire of reading at younger school students considerably increases continues to increase. Interest in literature of an adventure genre that is the most characteristic feature of teenagers as readers, was also displaced in the last decade towards detectives, adventures, “fantasy“, “horror films“. Girls - teenagers and girls became readers of sentimental literature for women and “ladies`“ novels.These processes are especially accurately shown by
in regions. So, according to researches of the Volgograd regional children`s library (2001) the television substantially defines reader`s preferences of teenagers. Data of researches of children`s libraries in a number of regions also confirm the general tendency: reading children and teenagers is divided into two components more and more:“ business“ and “free“. The last is focused, mainly, on entertainment and a recreation, and the preference is given to magazines, first of all, entertaining. So, in the Volgograd region on the first place at girls - teenagers - magazines“ COOLGIRL“, “Feature“, “Marusya“, etc. In a rating of literary preferences the first places are given to adventure literature, a fantasy and a fantasy. At boys “horror films“ are on the third place, at girls - on the fifth, the detective - on the seventh whereas scientifically - popular literature is on the twelfth place, classical literature and poetry at girls is on the tenth place, at boys - on the fourteenth.
According to preliminary data our new research devoted to reading teenagers in villages in a number of regions of Russia especially popular with children and teenagers, there are “horror films“ and comics. The choice of teenagers is defined even more often by series. Classical literature, especially foreign, is almost not present at reading. So, almost nobody called, for example, D. London, And. - K. Doyle, M. Twain, A. Dumas or Sh. Bronte, M. Mitchell. But at repertoire of reading rural teenagers widely there are detectives for children and for adults, for example, D. Dontsova`s novels. Many teenagers read such magazines as “COOL“, “Hammer“, “Feature“, read also the SPID-INFO newspaper and similar editions, prefer magazines with a large number of pictures. Thus, the television culture influences reading children and teenagers, apparently, imperceptibly, but is very considerable.
Book, computer, Internet: new orientations of teenagersto some extent alternative to television act as
In the large cities new media. The modern teenager has great opportunities for the choice of this or that way of carrying out leisure. These are various mass media and electronic masses - media. Children, teenagers, youth and youth today - the most active social groups which are easily mastering new information technologies. They have no those psychological barriers which disturb adults as are susceptible to new; many of them already in the early childhood get acquainted with the computer. This new “multimedia generation“ which has other values, behavior models and orientations in the world of information.
One more line of modern teenagers is an aspiration to play on the computer. Such opportunity is given them also at school, and at home, at friends, in computer clubs. In our researches we recorded at the end
strong impact on their relation to the book, reader`s habits and addictions. The electronic culture, including a video production and various multimedia, are often perceived as competitors to the printing word. Certainly, at the first stage of development of new type of media and new opportunities which it gives to it there is a keen interest. Later, when it will be mastered, it “is built in“ structure of activity, and will take in it the place.
. Meanwhile we live within the fading old literary tradition. But this time promptly leaves that especially is considerably shown in reader`s activity of children and teenagers. In recent years there was a deterioration in a number of characteristics of reading at children and teenagers, decrease in their level of literacy. Teachers are full of alarm concerning simplification and a posterization of the speech at school students, primitive stamps with which their compositions often abound. School students do not master language of classical heritage, but well master various cliches and a formalistic approach to classical literature. Not only the culture of reading, but also the standard of speech as the considerable part of repertoire of favourite earlier literary classics which made considerable part of repertoire of reading children and teenagers does not accustom is lost. So, decrease in a role of literature in socialization of children and teenagers, partly happens and because today from repertoire of reading many of them heroes of literary classics already disappeared. At the same time influence of “electronic culture“ on reading amplifies.
So, in reading children and teenagers today very serious changes which have deep character happen. Many parents, teachers, librarians are still focused on old literary model whereas most of today`s children and teenagers have absolutely other preferences and other perception of book culture. They treat the book not as to “the textbook of life“, and as to one of media and mass communication. Thus, in some measure between generations there is a gap in transfer to the tradition of development of literary culture occurring long time. “The new model“ of children`s reading is approved - more precisely, “new models“ of reading for children and teenagers of different age, and this, the changed reality, sets other tasks of education of the young reader as “The person reading“.