the Phrase “pneumonia“ is thought up by doctors especially for “not doctors“. Physicians call an illness about which the speech will go pneumonia. The author had to hear approximately such stories more than once:“ Our Petya 2 times had a pneumonia and 1 time pneumonia“. I.e. in not medical environment there is no unambiguous confidence that pneumonia and pneumonia this same. I write about it consciously, and not in condemnation, perfectly understanding that a basic medical training at schools is not taught people.
Pneumonia - one of the most widespread human diseases. For some, especially at children`s age, it just some punishment, for others - a rarity; the third, such, unfortunately, there is not a lot of, had no pneumonia. But all have the had relatives and acquaintances in enough!System of breath in general and lungs in particular - are very vulnerable
for infectious diseases. At all variety of ways of infection, vozdushno - the drop way of transfer meets most often. It is no wonder that an advance party of fight against a set of viruses and bacteria are the top airways. Under certain conditions - weakness of immunity, high activity of a microbe, violation of qualitative composition of the inhaled air, etc. - infectious process is not localized only in the top airways (a nasopharynx, a throat, a trachea), and extends down. Sometimes process comes to an end with an inflammation of a mucous membrane of bronchial tubes - bronchitis, but, quite often, business is not limited to it. There is an inflammation of directly pulmonary fabric - it is and there is pneumonia.
the Described way of developing of pneumonia - the most frequent, but not only. At school all of us received the answer to a question of for what lungs are necessary to the person in principle. The answer concrete and unambiguous - to breathe. Excellent students can even report that in lungs there is a gas exchange - oxygen comes to blood, and from blood carbon dioxide is removed. Everything, in general, is correct, but, it appears, besides breath, lungs carry out a set of other, very various functions.
Lungs regulate an exchange of liquid and salts in an organism (for example, moisten the inhaled air).
Lungs protect an organism from penetration of a huge amount of “bad“ substances, in enough attendees in the inhaled air.
Lungs regulate body temperature (air heating, in - the first, “dumping“ of excess heat breath increase, in - the second).
In lungs some proteins and fats are synthesized and collapse, and, producing these substances, lungs regulate, for example, system of fibrillation.
At any inflammatory process in an organism, at any operation, at any fracture of bones, at any burn, at any food poisoning - is thrown out blood or in blood the huge amount of harmful substances - toxins, blood clots, products of disintegration of the damaged fabrics is formed. All these particles catch lungs, some of them neutralize (dissolve), others delete by means of cough. Simply speaking, lungs are as if a peculiar bast through which constantly there is a blood filtration.
in equipment and life all of us meet filters constantly. We change filters in cars, we include them in kitchen, we drink the filtered water. Filters, incidentally get littered, throw out them or wash out. With our major biological filter - with lungs - it is more difficult. It is difficult to wash out, it is impossible to replace.by
It no wonder that increase of load of the pulmonary filter (the diseases mentioned by us, injuries, operations) not always comes to an end safely. And than any illness is heavier, than the trauma is more dangerous, than the burn is more extensive, than operation - that a high probability of what the pulmonary filter will not sustain is more difficult, a certain site of the filter “will get littered“ and in it inflammatory process will begin.
Taking into account all aforesaid, easily explainable. Therefore if Ivan Ivanovich broke a leg, and in three days he began pneumonia if the girl Natasha has a severe diarrhea, and for the second day pneumonia - that it not in hospital was chilled (the option was infected). It is, unfortunately, not so rare and quite natural option of succession of events.
Practically any microorganism can become the reason of development of pneumonia. What it is concrete - depends on a number of factors. From age of the patient, from that place where pneumonia will arise - houses or in hospital, if in hospital, then in what office - in surgery one microbes, in therapy others. A huge role plays organism states of health in general and a condition of immunity in particular.
At the same time, pneumonia quite seldom happens primary, i.e. once upon a time there was a healthy boy Vasya, suddenly time - also ached with pneumonia. Pneumonia, as a rule, again also represent complication of other disease.All these
“other diseases“ can be divided with confidence into two groups - the sharp respiratory viral infections (SRVI) and all the rest. At the same time pneumonia as complication of a usual SARS (cold, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis), meets much more more often than pneumonia at all other infections, injuries and operations. It is not surprising at all and is explained not by some special “strashnost“ of respiratory viral infections, and their widest prevalence - the average person
: regardless of weight of a SARS or other infection, regardless of volume and complexity of operation (a burn, a trauma, etc. ) both the specific adult, and specific mothers - fathers have real opportunities considerably to reduce risk of developing of pneumonia at himself, darling, and at the children. Physicians too a lot of things can. To put it briefly, on the question “what to do?“ answers are. The main thing it, in - the first, to answers to listen (option - to read), in - the second, to understand and, in - the third, to realize in practice.Further explanations can seem
to the reader too clever. But very much all - would be desirable to achieve understanding! From here the desperate request to read, and when misunderstanding - to re-read! Relevance of knowledge is exclusively big: the author saw at least 5 thousand pneumonias at children and in 90% of cases children were entirely obliged by the disease to parents who perfectly know how to do the child, but do not know about what it is necessary and what should not be done with the child!
For a start we will pay attention to very important physiological mechanism inherent in normal functioning of lungs. The mucous membrane of bronchial tubes constantly excretes slime which is called a phlegm. Value of a phlegm is exclusively big. It contains the substances maintaining elasticity of pulmonary fabric. The phlegm envelops the dust particles getting into lungs. High concentration in a phlegm of antimicrobic substances (immunoglobulins, a lizotsim) - one of the main ways of fight against causative agents of the infections getting into airways.in
As well as any other liquid, a phlegm are inherent defined physics - chemical characteristics - density, viscosity, fluidity, etc. Set of all these parameters is realized in such concept as a phlegm rheology, - i.e. the phlegm with a normal rheology - carries out the functions described above, and with not a normal rheology, certainly, does not carry out. If just did not carry out - so it is half-troubles! Other half of trouble following: loss by a phlegm of the normal properties leads to the fact that dense slime breaks ventilation of lungs (bronchial tubes are corked, blocked), in badly ventilated sites blood circulation is broken, settle microbes, and as quite logical consequence, inflammatory process - that pneumonia begins.
Thus, the main reason for pneumonia - violation of a rheology of a phlegm, and importance of the concept “phlegm“ becomes obvious. On the agenda the need for accurate knowledge of the factors influencing properties of a phlegm acts.Formation of a phlegm is directly connected by
with blood circulation in pulmonary fabric (i.e. with a rheology of the blood: blood rheology = phlegm rheology). The leading factor promoting violation of a rheology of blood - the increased loss by a liquid organism. Reasons: overheat, perspiration, diarrhea, vomiting, insufficient water inflow, high temperature of a body.
Intensity of education and quality of a phlegm in many respects are defined by composition of the inhaled air. Than air to the land, than is more in it than dust particles or chemical agents (factors of household chemicals, for example) - that it is worse.
the Formed phlegm all the time is removed, and removal it happens in two ways. The first way - well-known is cough. The second is as follows: the internal surface of bronchial tubes is covered by cages which, in turn, have special outgrowths - eyelashes. Eyelashes move all the time, pushing a phlegm from below up - to a trachea and a throat, and already there cough will make the business. By the way, all factors which are directly influencing a phlegm rheology in not smaller degree influence also work of a resnitchaty epithelium (so in clever medical language call an internal surface of bronchial tubes).
the knowledge Gained by us on what is a phlegm and for what it is necessary, allows to draw 2 very important conclusions:normal performance by lungs of the functions is impossible for
- Without normal phlegm;
- the Above-mentioned normal phlegm has to be removed from lungs in time. Cough, - namely cough deletes a phlegm, - happens different and it is everyone was influenced. Cough can be dry, painful, but maybe damp when after an episode of cough of people feels sense of relief as the phlegm departs and it becomes much more slight. Such cough - damp, with a phlegm otkhozhdeniye, physicians call productive.
concerning cough that the frequency of pneumonia after surgeries, especially on abdominal organs and a thorax, in many respects speaks not only load of the pulmonary filter, but also the fact that it is very painful to person to cough, the phlegm accumulates in lungs and pneumonia does not keep itself waiting.
So, the most important ways of prevention of pneumonia - maintenance of an adequate rheology of a phlegm and cough.
we will consider a “classical“ situation Now - a typical SARS. Symptoms - cold, cough, temperature increase of a body. Inflammatory process in the top airways is followed by the increased development of a phlegm.
our Main tasks - not to allow a phlegm to lose the normal properties and to have productive cough.As it to achieve
Basic rule: clean cool air indoors where there is a patient. Optimum temperature of about 18 ° C. Any sources of dust in the room increase probability of drying of slime as at abundance of carpets and upholstered furniture to moisten air quite difficult, and without these most dust sources there are quite enough
. Once again I will emphasize: optimum 18 ° With, but 15 ° is better; With, than 20 ° The Page
Besides dry and warm air, to drying of a phlegm is promoted by high temperature of a body. It is possible to fight against high temperature, but the more active “to force down“ it, the less it is developed in an organism of the interferon neutralizing viruses. What to do? To try to drink as much as possible - you remember communication of a rheology of blood and a rheology of a phlegm. We drink much, means “we dilute“ blood, so we facilitate removal of a liquid phlegm.
If in the room hot and stuffy (we live in the hostel of 5 people in one room) or on the street summer, and the patient refuses to drink, (the child does not want, the adult does not understand) high temperature of a body becomes exclusively dangerous - unambiguously it is necessary to use febrifuges.
Now about cough. In principle, productive cough is secondary, - i.e. if there is enough the liquid (not dried up) phlegm, then and cough, certainly, will be productive. But it in principle. People very much love the various drugs “for cough“ and very often actively “help“ themselves to cough to cease. It, in turn, promotes accumulation of a phlegm and development of pneumonia.
Should be understood accurately that, both cough happens different, and cough medicine happens different. Many preparations allegedly “for cough“ actually do not stop cough, and do it productive - it is very important and it is very necessary. Compound components of such drugs influence or an epithelium of bronchial tubes, promoting formation of a phlegm and improving work of eyelashes of an epithelium, or directly on a phlegm - diluting it. Names of these drugs are well-known.
Receive them generally from plants (typical representatives - mukaltin, bronkhikum), and options of tablets, syrups and mixtures - thousands. There is also small amount (no more than 10) very effective chemicals (not a phytogenesis) having influence on a phlegm, for example, Bromhexine, Ambroxol, atsetiltsistein.the Mentioned drugs call
“expectorant means“ and their use at a SARS considerably reduces probability of pneumonia, but (!) at obligatory performance of two preliminary conditions - plentiful drink and clean cool air (one good heater will easily win against 1 kg of Bromhexine).
At the same time, besides expectorant means, rather big group of the preparations promoting disappearance or easing of cough exists. They act differently, influence, for example, directly on kashlevy the center in a brain, reducing its activity. They are used in situations when cough, by and large, is not necessary to an organism, it, owing to features of the illness, does not give relief, and only inflicts suffering on the patient. What it is diseases? For example, whooping cough or chronic bronchitis. What it is preparations? For example, bronkholitin, glautsin, stoptussin, pakseladin. Using these drugs at a SARS and, reducing, thus, kashlevy activity, it is very easy to achieve a phlegm congestion in easy and the most various complications - first of all the same pneumonia.Loss by a phlegm of the properties is not
the only reason of pneumonia. Not the phlegm in itself causes inflammatory process in pulmonary fabric. Also presence of a concrete microbe (a streptococcus, a pneumococcus, staphylococcus etc.) is necessary . These microbes at most of people (not very well, the adult it or the child) peacefully live in a nasopharynx, and their reproduction restrains factors of local and general immunity. Any SARS leads to activization of bacteria and if this factor is combined with loss by a phlegm of the protective properties, then the similar situation is quite sufficient for emergence of complications.Information that the SARS is followed by activization of bacteria leads
to very wrong actions - to purpose of antibacterial preparations, first of all antibiotics or sulfanylamides (it is called preventive antibiotic treatment). These preparations do not affect viruses at all, but bacteria - that become more active! Here also hands these bacteria itch to crush. But it is impossible to crush all!
Among ten bacteria will always be such which the swallowed antibiotic does not affect. They will also cause pneumonia, and it will be not just pneumonia, and the pneumonia caused by the microbe steady against antibiotics.
But the main thing even not in it. The bacteria inhabiting a nasopharynx form certain withsociety which members peacefully coexist with each other and constrain reproduction of each other. Accepting antibiotics at viral infections, we promote that one members of microbic community perish, and others, having lost the natural rivals, begin to breed. Here also it turns out that preventive antibiotic treatment at a SARS by 9 times increases probability of developing of pneumonia!you already understood
how “to organize“ to own child pneumonia?
Put it in the warm dry room, is closer to a carpet, wash the floor with bleaching powder and include a heater. If tells what does not want to drink, - do not stick. Give bronkholitin that and very well ampicillin coughed less! This antibiotic does not affect staphylococcus so there is a chance not simply of pneumonia, and on staphylococcal pneumonia! Yes, nearly forgot! If you see snivels - dig naftizin quicker - that the virus in a nose long was not late, and at once got into lungs.
the Obtained information allows us, in - the first, to be defined in the main directions of prevention, and, in - the second, to understand that some actions promote development of pneumonia more than absolute inaction.
At the same time, the most correct and most resolute preventive actions sometimes do not help, and pneumonia all - arises - decrease in immunity, unsatisfactory socially - household factors, special activity of the causative agent of an infection.
should know some signs allowing to suspect development of pneumonia From here:
- Cough became the main symptom of an illness.
- Deterioration after improvement or any the “catarrhal illness“ lasting more than 7 days.
- Cannot deeply be inhaled - such attempt leads to a fit of coughing.
- the Expressed pallor of skin against other symptoms of a SARS (temperature, cold, cough).
- Short wind at low body temperature. to
- At high temperature is not helped by paracetamol at all (panadol, eferalgan, taylenol).
that the knowledge
the doctor has rather perfect methods of detection of pneumonia. Besides listening and percussion, in doubtful cases use clinical blood test and radiological inspection - it almost always allows to place all points over “i“. The choice of the place of treatment - the house or hospital - is defined by a number of factors - beginning from age of the patient and finishing with qualification of the doctor and his desire to run to you home every day (besides that the salary from it will not change).
Very essential and most basic moment - real weight of the pneumonia. The complicated disease forms proceeding with respiratory or heart failure, with an obstructive syndrome (the obstruction is just and there is an obstruction of bronchial tubes a dense phlegm), with pleurisy - are treated only in hospital. Uncomplicated pneumonia it is quite possible to treat houses.
As treat pneumonia?
Everything that was important at a prevention stage, becomes even more important at development of pneumonia.
Without use of pharmacological means not to manage, and the main thing, and it is unambiguous, there is a choice of an antibiotic, its dose and way of hit in an organism. Concerning a way it should be noted that introduction of an antibiotic by means of “vtykaniye“ of needles in buttocks is not absolutely obligatory at all - not less than 80% of all pneumonia safely recover by means of tablets and syrups.
Besides antibiotics are used by the preparations expanding bronchial tubes, for example, eufillin, vitamins, well and, certainly, a complex of expectorant means. As soon as the state begins to improve, at least, at once after normalization of body temperature, actively use various physioprocedures and massage. These actions considerably accelerate recovery process. Sometimes repeated radiological inspection is necessary - to be convinced that everything finally “resolved“.I essentially will not call
of Any concrete antibiotic that did not arise at a wide people at large of unhealthy desire to treat pneumonia independently. And in general, frankly speaking, to tell about treatment of pneumonia business not only ungrateful, but also risky.
Main for us, just not in treatment - let doctors think of it. Already that fact that you or your child had pneumonia, is reason for serious reflections.
About shortage of fresh air, about Sunday in front of the TV, about a pack of cigarettes in day, about given in the form of two carpets with which is present no forces to leave, about treatment by everything that comes to hand, about laziness human eventually...for
It is a pity only that these reflections come to minds of our compatriots or after a serious illness, or do not come in general. The turned system of values when children systematically pay for absence at parents of knowledge about volume “what is well and what it is bad?“ is twice offensive. The crumb to the son just has no place to go...