Rus Articles Journal

Sweet ice

Ice cream happens different and thanks to various additives is capable to give pleasure to any eater, whether it be the child or the adult, simple sweet tooth or a refined gourmet. The price at it too different: from several cents to thousands of dollars in a portion, as in the known nu - York restaurant Serendipity 3 where for production of ice cream cocoa - beans of 28 various grades are used.


It is clear that such product as ice cream, could not arise happy-go-lucky as it turned out, for example, with cheese. Surely there has to be a person who guessed to freeze sweet dairy weight so that it turned out rather soft and uniform. But, alas, the name of the inventor did not remain.

According to the version of one historians of cookery, the first ice cream could be thought up in Celestial Empire, mixing milk with the frozen fruit juice. Other researchers consider this assumption insolvent, at least because Chinese not really favor milk. They occupy one of the last places in the world on its consumption to this day (city dwellers - 5,6 liters a year, and rural - 0,6). It is unlikely they could create a dessert which the product enters unloved them.

However the fact that ice cream was invented where, as well as in China is obvious to

, it is wearisome hot places adjoin to areas with subzero temperature. Such combination is inherent in the southern countries in which there is massif. For example, to Iran where mountains occupy more than a half of the territory. It is known that there for a long time learned to use ice and snow rationally. In desert areas where temperature can reach 40 ° in the afternoon; C, it was necessary to cool somehow food, otherwise it very quickly spoiled. For this purpose Persians built so-called yakhchala - deep cellars, a ceiling which walls and a floor they covered with a thick layer of the heat-insulating mix. It included egg whites, sand, clay, goat wool, ashes, lime. When this substance dried, it became also waterproof. To minimize losses of heat, the entrance in yakhchat settled down in the north, in the dark cool place. Such storages were filled with the ice-covered blocks of snow brought from mountains. They were used also for preparation to a faluda - mix of noodles, fruit, pistachios, pink or lemon syrup with small pinned ice. Perhaps, this dessert also became an ice cream prototype.

the Volcano and salt

the Recipe of the ice cream which is brought most closer to modern was born

in Italy. And if even more precisely - on Sicily. On the biggest island of the Mediterranean Sea there was all necessary to create the cooling dessert. First of all - a sugar cane, not widespread in other parts of Europe, of which did sugar. The sweetener, known from antiquity, - honey not really suits for production of ice cream because when freezing it crystallizes (and it is just not required, it is enough also that problem that liquid turns into crystals). Besides, on Sicily were always engaged in cultivation of poultry and a cattle, so, eggs and milk - the main ingredients for a frozen dessert - were always near at hand. But one of the most important conditions - here is ice (on a massif of Iblei, Nebrodi, Le - Madoniye, on the Peloritansky mountains). The Sicilian ice was delivered across all Italy and taken out to Malta. At last, inhabitants of this island long since extracted sea salt. Until invented refrigerators and electric ice-cream parlors, was not to do without it.

That it became clear to

for what salt in preparation of a sweet dish is necessary, it is necessary to explain, than ice cream differs from other cold desserts - from above-mentioned to the Persian faluda or from the frozen milk from which in the Siberian villages a knife scraped off shaving and ate with honey, jam or sugar. A difference - in a consistence: ice cream even if in it there are pieces of nuts, fruit or cookies, represents homogeneous, smooth, creamy mass. It is possible to achieve such uniformity, only continuously stirring slowly with the cooled substance that in it crystals were not formed. It is difficult to combine cooling and stirring without the aid of electricity: ice thaws slowly, and ice cream so slowly stiffens. It is necessary to mix it continuously many hours in a row. Salt forces ice to thaw much quicker, and at the same time it takes away heat from environment, in particular from the mix intended for freezing.

So, here the simplest production technology of ice cream which was successfully used throughout several centuries: container with ingredients was put in the bowl filled with ice and salt and shook up dairy weight. Thawed snow was periodically merged, adding new ice and a portion of salt. And through a couple of hours the dessert was ready.

Ice in kitchen

To the middle of last millennium glaciers, similar to those that were under construction in Persia began to appear also in Europe. Usually they were constructed where ice was in close proximity that is where it descended from mountains, or near the rivers and lakes freezing in the winter. However the “homebrew“ ice sometimes was not enough and it it was necessary... to export. Quite good business on ice was done by the Scandinavian countries from where it was taken out to England and France up to 50 - x years of the XX century.

In Europe the “ice“ room or a cellar became the integral accessory of any notable house in the XVI-XVII centuries, when at the Royal Courts hours-long feasts from of 30 - 40 dishes were arranged: such magnificent festivals could not be organized without preservation of products on cold. At the time of Louis XIV became fashionable to cool wine, however, doctors of that time often changed opinion on cold drinks, including their deadly, absolutely useful to health. In 1685 the French architect Louis Savo participating in construction of Louvre published the book “French Architecture of Special Buildings“ in which he left detailed descriptions on the glacier device. Savo recommended to choose the dry, shady place, to dig there a deep hole, to lay in it a wooden lattice which would not get to the bottom (that on a bottom the thawed water left). He advised ice blocks to shift a layer of hay or straw.

Russia, more precisely, that its part which nowadays belongs to America Participated in export of ice also: Alaska. From there Rossiysko`s efforts - the American company founded in 1851 under Nicholas I`s decree, ice was taken out to California, and at very favorable prices: 75 dollars for ton (while the cost of production did not exceed 2,5 dollars). At the end of the 19th century Russians exported about 3000 tons of ice to America (the truth, the prices by this moment fell by 10 times). In Russia ice was extracted too - sawed the frozen surface of the rivers in the spring, using saws with the suspended freight.

the Dessert - missionaries Italians made


much in order that the cooling dessert extended worldwide. According to the legend, in 1533 recipes of a various culinary delicacy including ice cream, the florentiyka Ekaterina Medici who married Henry II brought to France. But only one and a half centuries later in Paris there was the first cafe which was opened by the Sicilian Francesco Procopio Di Coltelli (1651 - 1727). In the homeland, in Palermo, he was a fisherman. In France decided to try the luck in a “sweet“ field especially as it in inheritance from the grandfather got the machine for knocking down of ice cream. It is how possible to judge, it was the primitive device: two pans inserted one into another to a cover top the handle with blades for hashing was attached.

It is cafe under the name “Prokop“ exists and today (our compatriots consider it as Russian and often visit). Also the old menu in which it is possible to read that prepared within the walls of this institution in the 18th century remained:“ the frozen waters“ with different syrups (probably, something like modern Italian granites), cold sorbet from berries, fruit ice cream. Popularity of Prokop cafe was added also by the fact that the owner took out royal patents for many delicacies which moved only there. As a result the cafe were visited by many famous figures of the XVIII-XIX centuries: Diderot, Russo, Marat, Robespierre, doctor Gilyoten, George Sand, Balzac, Danton and Napoleon who, according to the legend, had to leave as a deposit the hat once - to a two-horn because there was not enough money to pay for the eaten desserts.

the legend that in Russia ice cream appeared thanks to the Italian count Yuli Pompeevich Lita Exists. The famous seafarer arrived to Russia in 1789 at the request of Catherine II for strengthening of the Baltic Fleet, having become in 26 years the youngest at that time the general. Being a knight of the Order of Malta, it gave a vow of chastity, and therefore tried to compensate the absent pleasures of life by other pleasures, in particular, had a reputation for the big fan of ice cream. They say that Lita taught to prepare this delicacy of the Russian cooks who soon reached big art not only in its production, but also in registration.

can meet by

In memoirs of the 19th century enthusiastic memories of what effect “Vesuvius on Mont Blanc“ had on public a dessert (ice cream poured rum or cognac and set fire) or the colourful ruins of the antique temple executed from ice cream of different flowers. Creating these masterpieces, confectioners froze several hours on cold, and there “lived“ delicacies only a few minutes as they instantly began to melt from heat of furnaces and candles.

High technologies

the Ice cream made manually was pleasure expensive, and therefore inaccessible. Sometimes the passion to this delicacy led to the present tragedies. For example, in 1883 on a Baptist holiday in the American city of Kemden 59 people to death got poisoned with ice cream. However, it was not usual ice cream, and... reusable. There was a wish to regale on sweet on everything, but not many could afford it. So there were inventions like “Wadded frozen Smith“ - a cone from the pressed cotton wool or “Methodist frozen Brown“ - a horn from rubber. Focus consisted that splashed on a horn a little sweetened milk and licked it, representing that in hands the real ice cream. According to the New York Times newspaper which reported the sad accident with poisoning, unfortunate Baptists did not understand and imitations of ice cream without remainder burned out.

with the advent of electricity in our life a lot of things became simpler, including production and storage of ice cream. The first electric refrigerators which were released by the American firm General Electric cost under one thousand dollars - much even at the present prices, and then for this sum it was possible to buy two cars. These units consisted of several parts: the case for storage of products stood on kitchen, and here the motor there did not find room any more, and it had to be taken out to the cellar or the storeroom. The cooling substance in such refrigerators became on the basis of poisonous dioxide of copper and if it followed, then the refrigerator in order to avoid poisonings was not subject to repair and went for emission. Then there were refrigerators on the basis of the freon which strongly reduced the price of their production. And after them in 50 - x years of the 20th century there were electric ice-cream parlors which at the same time mixed and cooled sweet weight.

But does not have

a limit to perfection - work on ice cream is continued. One of the last to no - Hau - the invention of food antifreeze. Its molecules are attached to microscopic kristallika of ice, without allowing them to grow, thereby preventing change of a consistence of ice cream at long storage, so, and taste. Americans receive antifrizny protein from a liver of fish. As it is included into the list genno - the modified products, many consumers refuse such ice cream. But new, discovered by Shrenivasan Damodaran from University the Wisconsin - Madison, - natural. This protein is made on the basis of gelatin and enzyme of the papainase (extracted from a papaya).

Structure of temptation

Milk, cream, sugar, eggs, nuts, berries, chilly fruit, cocoa, chocolate, coffee, spices, cookies, yogurt - here not the full list of products of which ice cream can be made. But no initial recipe exists. Instead of sugar it is possible to use a sakharozamenitel or dried fruits, and instead of cow`s milk - soy or rice. In Europe ice cream is usually done with eggs, in the USA, being afraid of salmonellosis, they are not used, but there the final product turns out fatter at the expense of cream. Japan does ice cream of green tea, plums, ginger. In the best Italian dzhelateriya it is accepted to use only seasonal fruits as fillers: strawberry - in the spring and at the beginning of summer, apples - in the fall, tangerines and oranges - in the winter. The Turkish frozen delicacy under the name of a dondurm is done on the basis of goat milk, adding to it a salep - flour from roots of wild orchids. Thanks to this substance it turns out very viscous and lasts as chewing gum.

Whatever you may say, and ice cream gives to culinary specialists ample opportunities for experiments. For example, such option: cottage cheese and balsam vinegar. Or chocolate with red pepper and walnuts.

In the London department store “Harrods“ to buyers are offered by 20 types of ice cream with tastes of traditional British dishes: the Scottish haggis, smoked fish, a Yorkshire pudding, toasts with cheese or vustershirsky sauce. The creator of original ice cream Gino Soldan considers that it is the best of all to serve such ice cream together with hot dishes. So, in his opinion, it is good to combine ice cream with taste of fish with a smoked salmon, fennel and cream cheese.

And still the most inventive remain

the Italian masters of culinary art: Gianfranco Vissani is the author of omarovy ice cream, Vittorio Fusari - cheese ice cream, Izidoro Konsolini - ice cream with taste of olive oil. All of them are solidary in opinion that sweet fruit ice cream already got out of fashion. It is good that most of people do not agree with them. Unless it is possible to refuse multi-colored balls of ice cream in an ice-cream bowl, ice cream cones or an eskimo on a stick!