Lesson of physiotherapy exercises or occupation on a piano?
of the Piano (or a synthesizer) can be used as a peculiar exercise machine for development of large and small motility of hands at children with limited opportunities.
Many of us studied at music school, our children, at someone from readers - already and grandsons study now. I want to ask one question: how often among pupils of the children`s music schools (CMS) you had to meet children with limited opportunities? It is sure that the vast majority will answer negatively.
Earlier elite, and nowadays public primary music education continues to remain inaccessible for the children having limited opportunities of activity. Despite a row accepted in the last decade of the normative documents granting the equal rights to all categories of citizens in educational social and other spheres of activity, children with limited opportunities actually continue to be left “in the basket“ of life.
of the Child with violations oporno - the motive device, and, therefore, with big problems in the field of motility, will never be admitted to music school because of impossibility of implementation of the training program. And special (correctional) programs for musical education, including playing musical instruments, for children with a disease “children`s cerebral palsy“ (CCP), a delay of mental development, violations of the speech and other do not exist. In our country, unfortunately, do not train experts - the musicians able to give professional rehabilitation help to children with various deviations in development.
More than 10 years ago in the Kazan DMSh № 14 Departments of education precedent on training in music of children with limited opportunities on the basis of the City rehabilitation center of children - disabled people (GRTsDI) was created. In September, 1994 when opening branch of music school everyone, irrespective of the diagnosis and severity of a disease, including big group of children with a cerebral spastic infantile paralysis disease (according to the charter of GRTsDI in given uchebno - a medical institution children with safe intelligence are trained) was enlisted in number of pupils. Children were given the chance to be trained in game on tools, including on a piano (synthesizer).
the Desire to be engaged in playing a piano and other tools arose at many children, the requirement of emotional self-expression is inherent in all people, irrespective of presence or absence at them of physical defect. Without having special experience and methodical help, teachers of DMSh faced a number of problems: how to learn for what to learn where borders of opportunities at children with motor violations. The huge and invaluable help was received by teachers - musicians from doctors and logopedists of the Rehabilitation center. At the moment it is possible to speak about the available positive experience, about creation of new methodical approaches to teaching various musical disciplines, including playings musical instruments, to a logopedic vocal, etc. The author of the present article made the program with detailed methodical comments for training of children from cerebral spastic infantile paralysis in playing a piano (synthesizer).to
In article stated only one of the aspects presented in the author`s program, its essence can be reduced to use of a piano (or a synthesizer) as peculiar exercise machine for development of large and small motility of hands and fingers. The pupil is younger, the more interestingly and more variously it is possible to use the keyboard. Application of specific game inclusion in an initial stage of training is possible also without mastering knowledge of musical notation. It is the so-called “donotny“ period which at music school naturally comes to an end in
“A sound picture“. It is based on sound graphic opportunities of the tool and is improvised on the set subject.
“Rain and a thunder-storm“
the Teacher and the pupil sit at the tool, the teacher - at the left. Game is followed by the text comment of the teacher. At repeated execution of a task children often volunteer to conduct a plot independently.
- is Shone by the sun. (The teacher plays a major triad, the sound as if hangs in mid-air.)
- the cloudlet Suddenly runs. (The major is replaced by a minor.)
- From a cloudlet the easy sunshower begins to drip. (The pupil the easy movements, randomly, at slow speed, quietly elicits sounds in the top register. It is possible to alternate black and white keys.)
- the Rain amplifies. (Blows become more frequent, volume of sound increases. The teacher uses in accompaniment more difficult and colourful chords - septakkorda.)
- the hail Suddenly went. (The sound register goes down, sound intensity more and more amplifies.)
- the Thunder! (Blow several fingers at once or a cam on keys in the low register.)
- the Rain gradually abates and comes to an end. (Game receptions repeat in the return sequence.)
- In the sky the rainbow appears. (The teacher finishes “picture“ with beautiful chords.)
In this way can sound a picture of the night sky with the moon and stars, meteorites and space satellites of the earth, a summer meadow with bees, butterflies and bugs, an underwater kingdom, etc.
during performance of a task the teacher not only executes a harmonious background, dictates contents and possible ways of game, its task deeper prompts:
- to watch position of the case and a correct posture of the child during execution, especially in extreme registers of a piano;
- to watch uniform load of both hands as the child always tries to work with more obedient, that is healthier hand;
- as much as possible to involve in work all fingers of hands, and not just those which the child got used to manipulate.
Other type of a creative task, related to the first, it is possible to call “We tell the fairy tale“. Oral retelling of the known plot or the lesson composed on the course alternates with its scoring. Such type of work is very useful to children with violations of speech functions for additional training of the articulation device, and also for formation of skill of coherent retelling. The teacher and the pupil can divide among themselves characters, and also the pupil can undertake all “statement“ of a plot. The teacher at the same time acts as “sound producer“, showing or prompting as easier and more precisely to represent this or that character, dialogue or the happening action.
can give a fragment of the fairy tale “Bremen Musicians“ As an example. The version of the text can be free, for example, to shorter, can acquire new details.
“Bremen musicians“ (fragment)
“Once upon a time there was a Donkey (in a small octave the left hand the child`s hand will take in an interval of a sixth or a seventh - as - shout “both - and, and - and“ is represented). There was it old. Could not work more at a mill, and the owner decided it not to feed any more. Then the Donkey decided to run away from the owner (in the low register two hands alternately represent uniform knock of hoofs which can accelerate and be slowed down). And here the Donkey came to the unfamiliar village and hears that someone howls (in the top register the ascending glissando on all white keys, very easily feasible on a synthesizer, but demanding special skill on a piano is executed). This is the Dog. The owner decided to kill him because the Dog became old and cannot hunt more. Also the Donkey and the Dog together decided to run (the pupil can execute run of both heroes of the fairy tale two hands in different textures of the tool and if it is rather difficult, then the teacher and the pupil sound everyone the hero)...“the forms of work Described above are rather volume
according to contents, are various by types of the movement sound taking skills. If the child experiences difficulties in a certain part of a task, the finger-type playings and exercises a piano developed by the author come to the rescue. They are urged to help the child to adapt to the keyboard, to hear its timbre, dynamic, sound graphic, colourful opportunities. These exercises are elements, “construction material“ of the improvised pictures and plots described above.by
At lessons also apply finger-type games from an arsenal of logopedists and speech pathologists, the gymnastic exercises for hands, brushes and fingers used on occupations of LFK. They are urged not only to give help in mastering certain types of the movement, but also to add to motive experience at a lesson, to involve other groups of muscles as playing a piano is accompanied by limited spatial position of a body and hands at the tonkokoordinirovanny movements of fingers.
of the Problem of motor development of children, having a cerebral spastic infantile paralysis disease, at lessons of a piano are individualized depending on extent of defeat of motive functions and are directed to the following:
- maximum development of motive abilities of fingers of hands;
- elaboration of the exact and coordinate movements of hands and fingers;
- acceleration of motor reactions;
- reduction of contractures of joints of hands and fingers;
- development of bimanualny coordination both temporary, and spatial.
Of course, bypassed at a lesson neither esthetic, nor emotional components. The paramount part is assigned to the last. Modern psychologists claim that mother of the doctrine is not repetition at all, and an emotional reinforcement. Repeated mechanical repetition can lower or “kill“ interest and an initiative and as a result to make all process of training ineffective. Whether for this reason many of you gave up occupation at music school in due time, and those who heroically reached the end, the whole next years did not open a piano cover?Positive emotions, pleasure and satisfaction from the happening creative process maintain by
interest in occupations, the correctional component of a lesson passes for the child imperceptible.personal qualities of the teacher are very important
For creation at a lesson of the atmosphere of emotional pleasure: goodwill, partnership, optimism, sense of humour, sincerity - all that cannot be shown formally.
In relation to the pupil in the course of a lesson the teacher cannot allow even a hint on displeasure from the performed task, on the contrary, only encouragement and pleasure of coauthorship. If the child does not cope - means, requirements of the teacher are overestimated. The types of work given above have no accurate scheme, there is no ideal model of performance. Everything that is done by the child on emotional lift, is a limit of its present opportunities, it its achievements, its victory over the illness. How it is possible to estimate this work? Of course, only perfectly well!the Author`s program for training in playing a piano of children with a disease of cerebral spastic infantile paralysis offers
special approach and to development of musical notation. The disease is often accompanied violation of spatial coordination and a problem with sight that results in complexity at interpretation of musical symbols and to their transfer to a sound row. For the maximum simplification of this process the large print, color registration, various ways of simplification of a two-handled statement are used.
in process of the child`s growing the game component of a lesson decreases, and the form of its carrying out more and more gets standard forms. Game improvisational tasks are urged to interest and stimulate children with various motorno - motive violations of hands to work on the tool, to instill confidence in the opportunities and finally as much as possible to compensate and correct motive defects.
of Class on a piano in the special program for children with various violations of motility of hands make very effective impact not only on correction of psychomotor reactions, but also on development of all touch systems, memory and the psychoemotional sphere of the child. It should be noted positive shifts in formation of tonkokoordinirovanny movements of hands and fingers that is reflected in handwriting improvement, development of skills of self-service, surer work at the computer etc. Application of the methods offered in the author`s program promotes also development of the articulation device and development of the speech in general: it becomes more emotional and expressive. Work on the keyboard and with the musical text promotes development of abstract thinking, improvement of spatial coordination, increase in volume of any memory that, in turn, influences quality of study according to the general education program.
of Occupation at music school is also an opportunity to prove to be on a scene as the pianist, singer of chorus or soloist - the vocalist. Regular performances help children with limited opportunities to get rid of complexes, raise their self-assessment, do more sociable, opened in communication.by
the Author`s program for training in playing a piano of children with motility violations, and also the special methodical receptions offered in it can widely be used in practice of musical training and education of children with various medical diagnoses. Tasks which are set by the author are directed to socialization of children with limited opportunities of activity, their adaptation in modern life and education of full-fledged and full members of modern society.