Rus Articles Journal

Models of universities. What types of higher education institutions are actual today? To Choose

not only between concrete higher education institutions, but also between types of higher education institutions - it is quite natural. Rather surely entrants argue about prestigious and not prestigious, about technical and humanitarian, on the state and non-state universities. Meanwhile at the choice future Alma - the mater makes sense to think also of on what model she works - and what educational result in this regard waits for it the student.

Digression to history

Talk on models of universities ran high in the 19th century in connection with opposition their French (Napoleonic) and German (Humboldt`s university) models. Respectively, one of them more strict, authoritative, accurate, pragmatic - and another more democratic, diillogical, research.

However, even the first European higher education institution - the Constantinople higher school founded in 425 g. - equaled on model so-called ateneya, ancient Roman type of the official educational institution urged to exclude a possibility of the conflict of educated people with the power.

A training in one of the oldest of current universities founded in 859 Al - to Karauina (Fes, Morocco, Africa), followed also the duty which is earlier imposed on people by Islam to develop spiritually and intellectually is a peculiar model too.

It is also clear to

that any universities with long history - Oxford (1117), Bologna (1158), Parisian (1215) and others - did not avoid influence of church and government institutions. And if the church transferred a rank of the center of science over time to higher education institutions where more and more secular moods extended, then interaction of the state and higher education institutions did not leave anywhere. Today models of the higher education in many respects are defined relatively this circumstance.

By the way how to choose from numerous circumstances of life of eminent universities those events and the relations which can be considered as an essential sign for university structure of special type, that is for model?

If the foundation to the Cambridge university was laid by flight of part of students and professorate from Oxford, then it, of course, does not mean that any higher education institution formed by a budding method - whether it be Physics and Technology faculty or MMA of I. M. Sechenov, - works on “the Cambridge model“.

If the Budapest university of economy and technology was the first polytechnical higher education institution, it does not mean that each polytechnical higher education institution copies its device and that the polytechnical higher education institution is such model of higher education institution.

A here relation of higher education institution to the state, science and career of the person really much more important. All this questions of outlook. So, - pioneers educational institutions, most likely, not of the same model are urged to train gallant performers and creators. The active patriotism and professionalism of the international level capable to be combined in the same person irrespective of his diploma, nevertheless can be carried on different university models.

the Model per se subjects is also good that it sets the most general obrazovatelno - the career coordinates helping to make the conscious and free choice for one of criteria - and at once to understand what should be filled due to self-education.

What models are today

the governments of the different countries of the world think Of university models. The Minister of Education of Russia Andrey Fursenko, for example, opposes uniform model of university. And for such big country, as ours, this natural opinion.

What models are actual and perspective


Model of university of a world class. It is about large, successful and most recent higher education institution. No matter, as far as it is attractive to entrants. It is important that the state can be proud of it and with its help it forms so-called “znaniyevy economy“ quicker. At such university can be higher education institution - the predecessor or higher education institutions - predecessors as in Russia, Kazakhstan or India, - however it can be created and from scratch as several “universities of sciences and technologies“ in Pakistan. Universities of a world class it can be planned essentially a little, as at us in the country, - but higher education institutions of this level maybe 100 as that is supposed to be made in China.

It is not just higher education institution. It is the ambitious project.

But also what this megaproject does not consider is. Perhaps, here to the student with some difficulty will be to listen to himself, to the unique educational requirements though uchebno - career opportunities to him will be offered by very good.

Elite model. the Higher education institution working on this model is academically interesting to entrants - intellectuals. Here festival of thought. to

A here possesses to such model higher education institution in which the strong circle of intellectuals works, but the bulk of students shirks and writes off, still a question.

Even if the higher education institution is really elite

, pay attention on potentially “a weak link“ in its structure - to practician. Where to you to move with your intellectual power? What will you think up that you will invent that to realize it?

Mass model. It is model for the mass consumer of the higher education. It can be paid or free - but nothing bigger, than categories, clear for such consumer, - prestigious specialties, a demand of graduates in local labor market and in local national economy, - the higher education institution does not offer. It is higher education institution - the realist. It is the higher education institution playing under laws of the market. By the way, there can be a quite good social infrastructure - because it is so convenient to clients, that is students.

However, at recent congress of rectors the rector of MSU Viktor Sadovnichii, telling

about models of universities, warned against a view of education as on service, and on the rector - as on the manager.

Two-level model. System “a bachelor degree + the magistracy“ is university model where got used to it and consider it natural where it enters outlook of the student and where the student can expect interesting educational results in connection with a bachelor degree or a magistracy. If it is a new experience, then so far it is a set of formalities to which just it is necessary to adapt.


it is obvious Here that the bachelor choosing a magistracy of a profile, new to himself needs to watch logic of the education that the important subject or a number of objects just did not drop out of the field of his sight especially fixedly. And it is quite good to the entrant choosing so far only a bachelor degree to take an interest what percent of students of a magistracy and graduate students from total number of pupils in higher education institution. In the known foreign higher education institutions it is big percent. Stanford University - 64%, Massachusetts Institute of Technology - 60%, Harvard - 59%, the Beijing university - 53%, London School of Economics - 51%. At the Russian universities these figures are several times lower so for these or those conclusions it is necessary to compare data on several domestic higher education institutions.

Model of network interaction. merging of higher education institutions in system when the higher education institution which was earlier quite independent unit begins to be perceived as one of its cells Means. And networks from such cells happen the most different, and cells too.

If it is University of the Shanghai organization of cooperation, the network connects higher education institutions of Kyrgyzstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan with 16 - yu the Russian higher education institutions - ITMO, LETI and other. And interaction between its cells will be carried out through head higher education institutions of SCO in each of these countries.

If it is university from the Utrecht network, then it is the European university organizing summer schools for other higher education institutions of Europe and appropriating degrees to students of these higher education institutions.

If it is higher education institution from the Top Industrial Managers for Europe network, then it is one of more than fifty European technical colleges, students of each of which can get an education at two and more institutes of the corresponding profile and to become owners of double diplomas. However, the network includes also higher education institutions from Asia and America.

If it is higher education institution - the participant of the Erasmus Mundus program, then it can accept in the magistracy the student from similar to it foreign higher education institution.


in the future predict significant increase in a share of similar schemes of training. From the point of view of their obvious pluses, they unostentatiously give the chance to compare distinctions in the structure of any two higher education institutions - partners - and to gain an impression that not all higher educational institutions are identical on the structure. From the point of view of possible minuses, these schemes of training put the participants at risk and from now on to go to others monastery with the charter. After higher education institution, in realities of career, this system does not work any more - or works in the truncated option as the community of graduates which ran up on the world.

the fact that the network model of education assumes receiving new cultural experience - and it truly humanitarianly Is good

, however, whatever specialty the student mastered. However it is possible to present this model and in a different way - as in the University Cluster program. In 2008 the Hewlett Packard company together with Institute of system programming of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences Interdepartmental supercomputer center started this program to increase the level of use of the parallel and distributed calculations in activity of the Russian higher education institutions.

Virtual model of university. More and more real, known universities training programs in the large-scale virtual Second Life project open (www. secondlife. com) - in multiuser online - the game representing the three-dimensional virtual world. There both Oxford, and university of Leeds, and University of Edinburgh, and Harvard, and Princeton, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Stockholm school of economy, and Catholic university Rio - - Zhaneyro located. In the same place there are also higher education institutions less known to us - is admissible, higher education institutions of Peru, Korea.

Reasons on which higher education institutions so unusually render habitable on-line space, the most different: not to allow the entrant to get lost among cases or to roll training programs in virtual reality or that it was possible to learn foreign languages. It is experimental model. To count here on serious educational result, it is necessary to be very well familiar just with classical structure of university and to respect its traditional device.

Model with the strong filter on an entrance. it is a counterbalance of the Bologna tendency Today. In Russia the higher education institutions having the right to hold own entrance examinations are that. Also this model is, for example, and in France - the country nice for rather free inclusion in the state universities. In the French higher schools as simply as in Sorbonne not to get.

in general domestic reception campaign of 2009, despite ubiquity of USE, in something even answered this model: there was a big competition of duplicates.

However if to be guided by the Soviet XX century, then it is not about some special model, and about the most usual higher education institution. It is the higher education institution which gathered by results of examinations of strong students, strong the students - and urging them to pay thereby attention and further to count on own intellectual potential.

Academy. One more traditional model. From recent news about academies: they were not allowed on a competition scientifically - research universities as formally universities are not. And among them there are objectively strong higher education institutions!

By the way, today in academies - that is also not told about certain “models of academies“ - it universities are occupied with judgment of the device and its designing.

Loud terms

Ideally the entrant determines by

model of the higher education institution interesting him independently. However and the staff of higher education institutions wishes to play definitions.

So, in 2004 in Tyumen passed All-Russian scientifically - practical conference at which physical training level in higher education institutions was discussed - and a certain model of university of a healthy lifestyle was considered. Business good - however this theorizing did not receive wide popularity in spite of the fact that today in higher education institutions of Russia there take place numerous sports competitions, and frightens students by checks on drugs.

Due to the Russian federal universities and national research universities is told about model of research university innovatively - enterprise type. It does not make sense to remember so difficult name as actually it is about the knowledge-intensive business of the state scale (it is just necessary to see, the science is how strong here, business is how interesting and as far as all this is supported by the state). And it is also the application for creating the university of a world class considered above - in the different countries such higher education institutions are imagined differently.

If this or that higher education institution so far only looks for justifications to achieve the desirable status, in its policy statements it is easy to meet reasonings on this or that model too - yes though about model of university of the Oxford type! It is not necessary to take the word here. Let`s glance in history of Oxford, we learn also what its structure today, - and if we really see in the Russian higher education institution jamming to it into analogs, large scientifically - the research university center, so there it is possible to arrive.

Russian model of university: whether there is such?

At one of the All-Russian congresses of rectors Vladimir Putin reminded that “in Russia the system, the models of education grew and took place“. Really, classical Russian higher education cannot be carried completely neither to German, nor to French to models. And to allocate its distinctive signs rather difficult: analogs can try to be found also in educational systems of other countries during this or that historical period especially as university culture in Russia not so old, as in Morocco, Italy or Great Britain. Another thing is that when speak about strong domestic universities XIX - the XX centuries, it is easy to imagine in the form of an image what there is a speech about. The Russian Academy of Education as the most perspective for our country in the 21st century considers kulturotsentristsky model of university, and it is quite representable too, though deserves separate big conversation. So, choosing higher education institution in Russia, it is worth watching as far as in this higher education institution are able to protect our best cultural traditions.