Rus Articles Journal

Autism - not an illness, this violation of development

Autism cannot be cured. In other words - from autism there are no tablets. Only early diagnostics and the long-term qualified pedagogical maintenance can help the child with autism.

Autism as independent frustration was for the first time described by L. Kanner in 1942, in 1943 similar frustration at the senior children were described by G. Asperger, and in 1947 - S. S. Mnukhin.

Autism - heavy violation of mental development at which first of all ability to communication, social interaction suffers. The behavior of children with autism is characterized by also rigid stereotype (from repeated repetition of elementary movements, such as a potryakhivaniye hands or jumpings, before difficult rituals) and frequent disruptiveness (aggression, self-damage, shouts, negativism, etc.) .

the Level of intellectual development at autism can be the most various: from deep intellectual backwardness to endowments in separate fields of knowledge and arts; in some cases children with autism have no speech, deviations in development of motility, attention, perception, emotional and other spheres of mentality are noted. More than 80% of children with autism - disabled people...

an Exclusive variety of a range of violations and their weight allows to consider by

reasonably training and education of children with autism the most difficult section of correctional pedagogics.


in 2000 was considered that prevalence of autism makes from 5 to 26 cases on 10 000 children`s population. In 2005 already one case of autism on average fell on 250 - 300 newborns: it more often than the isolated deafness and a blindness combined, a Down syndrome, diabetes or oncological diseases of children`s age. According to the World organization of autism, in 2008 1 case of autism is the share of 150 children. In ten years the number of children with autism grew up by 10 times. It is considered that the tendency to growth will remain and in the future.

According to the international classification of diseases of MKB - 10, treat actually autistic frustration:

What autism is?

in recent years autistic frustration began to unite

on an abbreviation of RACES - “frustration of an autistic range“.

Kanner`s Syndrome

the combination of the following main symptoms is characteristic

Of Kanner`s syndrome in strict sense of the word:

  1. impossibility to establish the full-fledged relations with people since the beginning of life;
  2. an extreme otgorozhennost from the outside world with ignoring of environmental irritants until they do not become painful;
  3. insufficiency of communicative use of the speech;
  4. absence or insufficiency of visual contact;
  5. fear of changes in a surrounding situation (“an identity phenomenon“, on Kannera);
  6. the direct and set aside ekholaliya (“the gramophone or popugayny speech“, on Kannera);
  7. an arrest of development “I“
  8. stereotypic games with not game objects;
  9. clinical manifestation of symptomatology of not later of 2 - 3 years.

When using these criteria it is important:

  • not to expand their contents (for example, to distinguish inability to establishment of contact with other people and active avoiding of contact);
  • to build diagnostics at the sindromologichesky level, but not on the basis of formal fixing of existence of these or those symptoms;
  • to consider existence or absence of procedural dynamics of the revealed symptoms;
  • to take
  • into account that inability to establishment of contact with other people creates conditions for the social deprivation leading in turn to emergence in a clinical picture of symptoms of secondary arrests of development and compensatory educations.
experts the child usually comes into the view of

not earlier than of 2 - 3 years, when violations become rather obvious. But also then parents often are at a loss in definition of violations, resorting to estimated judgments:“ Strange, not such, as all“. Quite often true problem masks imaginary or real violations, more clear for parents, - for example, a delay of speech development or a hearing disorder. Retrospectively quite often it is possible to find out that on the first year the child poorly reacted to people, did not accept a readiness pose at capture on hands, and taken - it was unusually passive. “As the sack with sand“, - sometimes is told by parents. Was afraid of household noise (the vacuum cleaner, the coffee grinder etc.) without getting used to them over time, found extraordinary selectivity in food, refusing food of a certain color or a look. For some parents of such violation become obvious only backdating when comparing with behavior of the second child.

Asperger`s Syndrome


As well as at Kanner`s syndrome, are determined by the communicative violations, underestimation of reality, a limited and peculiar, stereotypic focus of interest distinguishing such children from peers. The behavior is defined by impulsiveness, contrast affects, desires, representations; quite often the behavior has not enough internal logic.

ability to unusual, non-standard understanding of and people around early is found In some children. The logical thinking is kept or is even well developed, but knowledge is difficult reproduced and is extremely uneven. Active and passive attention are unstable, however the separate autistic objectives are achieved with big energy.

does not have

Unlike other cases of autism an essential delay in speech and cognitive development. In appearance turns on itself the released look that gives it “prettiness“, the mimicry which stiffened the look is turned into emptiness, fixing on faces fleeting. It is not enough expressive mimic movements, gesticulation is grown poor. Sometimes a look with concentration - self-profound, the look is directed “in itself“. Motility is angular, the movements spasmodic, with a tendency to stereotypies. Communicative functions of the speech are weakened, and it is unusually modulated, peculiar on a melodics, a rhythm and speed, the voice sounds is silent, cuts hearing, and in general the speech is quite often similar to the recitation. The tendency to word creation sometimes remaining and after puberty, inability to automation of skills and their realization outside, an inclination to autistic games are noted. Attachment to the house, but not to relatives is characteristic.

Rhett`s Syndrome

Rhett`s Syndrome begins to be shown by

aged of 8 - 30 months gradually, without the external reasons, against normal (in 80% of cases) or slightly detained motor development.

there is a detachment, already acquired skills are lost, development of the speech stops, during of 3 - 6 months observes full disintegration of earlier acquired speech stock and skills. Then there are violent movements “washing like“ in hands. Later ability to deduction of objects is lost, the ataxy, dystonia, muscular atrophies, kifoz, scoliosis appear. Chewing is replaced with sucking, breath falls apart. In a third of cases epileptiformny attacks are observed.

To 5 - 6 to years the tendency to progressing of frustration is softened, comes back ability to assimilation of separate words, primitive game, but then the illness progrediyentnost accrues again. The rough progressing disintegration of motor skills, sometimes even walking, peculiar to final stages of a serious organic illness of TsNS is observed. At children with Rhett`s syndrome against total disintegration of all fields of activity it is longest the emotional adequacy, attachments corresponding to the level of their mental development remain. Further heavy motive violations, deep frustration of a statics, loss of a muscular tone, deep weak-mindedness develop.

Unfortunately, the modern medicine and pedagogics is not able to help children with Rhett`s syndrome. We are forced to note that this heaviest violation among RACES which is not giving in to correction.

Atypical autism

Frustration similar to Kanner`s syndrome, however is absent at least one of obligatory diagnostic criteria. Of atypical autism it is characteristic:

  1. rather distinct violations of social interaction,
  2. the limited, stereotypic, repeating behavior,
  3. this or that sign of the abnormal and/or broken development is shown by
  4. aged after 3 - x years.

arises at children with heavy specific disorder of development of the receptive speech or mentally retarded More often.

From where who is guilty?

the Modern science cannot unambiguously answer with

this question. There are assumptions that autism can be caused by infections during pregnancy, the heavy or incorrectly carried out childbirth, inoculations, the psychoinjuring situations at early children`s age etc.

We have hundreds of thousands of examples when in families with ordinary children children with autism are born. Happens and vice versa: the second child in a family is ordinary while at the first - RACES. If in a family the first child with autism, then to parents recommend to pass genetic inspection and to determine existence by fragilny (withdrawal pains) of X - chromosomes. Its existence repeatedly increases probability of appearance of children with autism in this concrete family.

What to do?

Yes, autism is the disorder of development of the child remaining throughout all life. But thanks to timely diagnostics and the early correctional help it is possible to achieve much: to adapt the child to life in society; to teach him to cope with own fears; to control emotions.

the Most important - not to mask the diagnosis for allegedly “more harmonious“ and “socially accepted“. Not to run away from a problem and not to fix all attention on negative aspects of the diagnosis, such as: disability, misunderstanding of people around, conflicts in a family and other. Hypertrophied idea of the child as about ingenious is also harmful, as well as a dejectedness from its not success.

needs to refuse the tormenting illusions and the plans for life built in advance without hesitation. To accept the child it what he is actually. To work proceeding from interests of the child, creating around him the atmosphere of love and goodwill, organizing his world until he does not learn to do it independently.

Remember that without your support to the child with autism not to survive.

What prospects?

Actually everything depends on parents. From their attention to the child, from literacy and a personal position.

If the diagnosis was made to

till 1,5 years, and complex correctional events, then by 7 years are in due time held, most likely, already nobody even will think that once made to the boy or the girl the diagnosis “autism“. Study in the conditions of ordinary school, a class will not bring special trouble upon either a family, or the child. Secondary professional or higher education for such people - not a problem.

In spite of the fact that to 80% of children with autism - disabled people, disability, per se, can be removed.
If the diagnosis was made to

after 5 years, then with a high probability it is possible to claim that the child will study according to the school program individually. As correctional work during this period is already complicated by need of overcoming of the existing life experience of the child, the consolidated inadequate behavior models and stereotypes. And further study and professional activity will depend completely of that Wednesday - spetsilno the created conditions in which there will be a teenager.

In spite of the fact that to 80% of children with autism - disabled people, disability, per se, can be removed. It occurs thanks to correctly organized system of the correctional help. Need of registration of disability is dictated, as a rule, by a pragmatic position of the parents seeking to provide the child with the expensive qualified help. The organization of effective correctional influence, on one child from RACES requires from 30 to 70 thousand rubles a month. Agree, not each family is able to pay such bills. However the result costs the made efforts and investments.

of One of the main objectives of parents and experts, development of independence in children from RACES is. And it is possible, among autists there are programmers, designers, musicians - generally, the successful people who took place in life.