Rus Articles Journal

Listolaza of

Amazonia - the country of the woods, easy planets, the continent in the continent - with what only did not award with epithets people this great territory stretched on tens of thousands of square kilometers from the West on the East.

Damp rainforests of South America are the homeland of a set of surprising beings. Thousands of bird species, fishes, animals and amphibians live in corners of the jungle almost inaccessible to the person which dense greens reliably hide their life from public eyes. Names of many representatives of local fauna still do not appear even in the fullest zoological reference books.

K one of the animals, most interesting to the real fan, can carry primordial inhabitants of South America - wood jumpers (Dendrobatidae). Representatives of this family are little frogs whose size does not exceed of 4 - 5 cm. coloring dendrobatid is Especially attractive - these babies possess such palette of paints and patterns that can compete to inhabitants of coral reeves of the tropical seas.

Bright coloring does to

them too noticeable especially as these animals lead a day life that favourably distinguishes them from other representatives of army of drevesnitsa whom the jungle of Amazonia is full. But in this, at first sight fatal negligence to own safety, there is nothing terrible for owners of refined dresses - their skin is covered with the protective mucous film having effect, improbable on force: these bright crumbs - owners of the most terrible weapon in fauna - poison of external action.

Even the light touch can turn back

the most serious consequences. Not incidentally in translation from English they are called by “frogs of poisonous arrows“. Special fame for force of the chemical weapon was gained by one their type of the sort Phyllobates called by awful (P. terribilis). The poison emitted by his skin in several tens times toksichny cobra poison - one of the most venomous snakes of Central Asia. Dendrobatida live in damp places, moving on the ground or climbing up low plants, preferring to all we designate bromeliya. Here they find food - small insects, here they copulate and lay caviar, here look after the posterity. This surprising feature of their behavior deserves that to tell about it in more detail.

Males of the majority of types of a territorialna also strictly watch inviolability of borders of the site, protecting it from encroachments of other males, and at obvious threat entering the single combat reminding the Japanese fight of “sumo“. They let know about the presence and quiet melodious trills, protecting in the period of a season of reproduction of the females laying caviar for damp places and in small puddles. On it the role of a female comes to an end - the further care of a reproduction is undertaken by a male. It throughout the entire period of maturing of caviar to be nearby, protects it from encroachments of other amphibians, constantly humidifies, mixes caviar and after larvae hatch, transfers them on own back to in advance chosen reservoir. Them most often are the bosoms of leaves of plants, widespread in South America, which are constantly filled with water from family bromeliyevy.

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For the maintenance of listolaz needs the terrarium providing both humidity preservation, and good ventilation. The remade old aquariums usually do not meet these requirements. Most of all the all-glass or collected on silicone adhesive capacities which have a quarter of a cover and the third part of a sidewall approach are made of a small grid from stainless steel.

the Volume of a terrarium is defined not by requirements of animals, but size of plants which surely have to be there. It is desirable to provide a possibility of reduction of ventilation - movable shutters, pieces flew down etc. Temperature (about 27 ° With day and 23 ° With a night) it is desirable to support by means of the heaters dug in soil, but in the presence of a good source of lighting it is not obligatory - dendrobata are very undemanding to temperature, and range can be rather big - 26 - 30 in the afternoon and 22 - 24 in a night-time.

the composition of soil is of Great importance. At listolaz very gentle skin, and stones, gravel, even sand can injure it. We recommend the soil of such structure: the sheet earth, the coniferous earth, the crushed sphagnum (2:1:2). The part of soil can be covered with dernina of a live moss and lichens. Plants use both soil, and epifitny. To facilitate care of them, it is desirable to be limited to 2 - 3 types. From soil it can be a tradescantia, the helksena, a selaginella, from epifitny - various bromeliyevy with smooth not prickly leaves. Epiphytes should be placed so that it was easy for animal to reach them. For example, the large copy of a gutsmaniya can be on low to hemp.

the Water accumulating in bosoms of leaves of bromeliya serves for frogs not only “bathroom“, but also “maternity hospital“. Plant epiphytes as follows. Roots cover with a thin layer of a nutritious substratum (the sheet earth, peat, shredded pine bark - 1:1:1) and close a thin layer of a live sphagnum which is wound with a soft wire or a scaffold. The turned-out “envelope“ is strengthened on the right place by means of the same wire. A sphagnum it is necessary for 2 - 3 time in a week plentifully to spray boiled or rain water. Plants can grow in such block for years without change.

At the maintenance of listolaz should organize houses the whole fodder shop as these animals, unlike the majority of other amphibians, are very active also three - four day hunger strike are capable not only to weaken a healthy well-fad individual, but also to cause her death. For feeding it is the best of all to use crickets, and a fruit fly - the drosophila.

For lighting it is the best of all for p to use a combination of glow lamps of low power and luminescent LAU - ZO which, besides lighting, will provide animals with necessary quantity of ultraviolet rays.

If to you manages to place houses a terrarium not less than 75 cubic decimeters, it is possible to try to contain 2 - 3 couples of listolaz. In rather spacious aquariums these amphibians behave very interestingly.

Each male has the site which protects from encroachments of other males. At appearance of “troublemaker“ the owner of a site shows the eagerness to fight. As a rule, business is limited to “war-call“ - a long and melodious trill. But sometimes the newcomer does not concede, and two males for hours can sit against each other, singing songs. After that usually the violator recognizes the mistake and retires if it does not occur, the owner takes the offensive and tries to tumble down the violator on a back or to force out it out of site limits.

of the Female too sometimes show aggression to each other, but it occurs seldom. Usually the small harem from 3 - 5 “wives“ peacefully gets on with one male.

reproduction of these amphibians is Very unusual

. They lay caviar not in water, and on the land, in some damp place. It is possible to use leaves of bromeliya. As a rule, it is a little berries - 3 - 8 pieces (depending on a look). One of parents (usually uvvs3samets) constantly is about a laying, periodically moistening it with water and mixing hinder legs. The hatched tadpoles are attached on a back of the parent and travel together with him to a suitable reservoir. In such situation they can remain about seven days, eating the yolk remains. it is better for p to move

In terrariumny conditions a frog with posterity in the certain room with spacious small (2 - 3 centimeters) a reservoir. The tadpoles who began to float should be seated separately as even at surplus of a forage they are inclined to a cannibalism.

Bring up to grind sterns of “Tetra“ and “MicroMin“, a yolk of boiled egg, a melkorezany trubochnik. Water should be changed daily (1/4 volume), without allowing its damage. Temperature 23 - 28 ° C. Development lasts of 14 - 18 days, then young young frogs pass to a land way of life. At first they it is pale - yellow with black sides and a strip on a back. Over time black Colour vanishes, and on reaching the size of 2,5 centimeters young frogs get sparkling is yellow - orange coloring. At this time they can be placed to adult listolaza.

It is noted by p that with each generation received in the conditions of a terrarium, virulence of listolaz decreases. They are especially popular in Europe - the Czech Republic, Germany, and also in the USA. So far in terrariums it is possible to part only about 10% of the known types, but we will hope that over time the small five-centimetric “disarmed“ dendrobata will become same popular and in our country.