Why it is necessary to study, or About an individual approach to educational motivation of
such situation is familiar to Each parent: the child needs to perform a school task or to meet some standards and requirements, and he does not want it at all. Then adults resort to arrangements and explanations on “it needs to be made!“.
Many at the same time endure feeling of pedagogical powerlessness when all our it “is necessary“ break against a wall of a children`s spontaneity (“It is necessary for you, you and do!“) and sincere misunderstanding (“Who needs it? For what?“ ). All the matter is that often not only parents, but also teachers speak with the child different languages, trying to create at him desire to study.
my practice shows that the set of the arguments and receptions prepared on such case by adults is quite poor and one-sided. Besides, parents and teachers sometimes sin with the fact that they try to use the same explanations, is not dependent on the one who before them: the first grader or the pupil of the senior classes, the girl or the boy, the lefthander or the right-handed person, not to mention the accounting of interests and specific features of character.to
But such behavior is equivalent to how to try on one suit on children from all school! It, certainly, will suit someone, but the others will be left without new things!
How to organize an individual approach to increase of educational motivation at children?
How to put into practice that “the differentiated approach“ to training is meant the phrase which is often used in modern pedagogics?
for this purpose needs to be seen, first of all, before itself not just object of education, and the specific personality with the features, advantages and tendencies. That is, to be effective in education, be you the teacher or the parent, it is necessary to know the child first of all well.That you were convinced by
that it is not abstract phrases, we will pass to concrete consideration of features which need to be considered at the choice of strategy of a raising of motivation, a form of encouragement and punishment of the child.
- age features
- sexual distinctions
- psychophysiological characteristics (for example, a pravshestvo / levshestvo)
- an orientation of the personality
- normal development of the child or type of a deviation
- the individual distinctions caused by life experience, temperament, education, etc.
In this part of article we will in detail stop on the first block of features.
the Accounting of age features when forming educational motivation
Many parents complain that their child “does not want to study“. To understand when it is valid a problem and when - the normal phenomenon, let`s remember the famous scheme of the psychologist Maslou called “a pyramid of requirements“. It well reflects development of human “volitions“. And then you will see, what is the time it is required to the little man to pass a way from simple requirements to true desire to study.
Discussing a step behind a step, we will also discuss what to do to parents and teachers until this wonderful moment came yet.
So, the first, most basic human wants are requirements physiological: food, water, housing etc. Each person has them absolutely at any age.
Therefore at any age can use presence at children of material motives - to study to earn reward (toys, sweets and other simple and tangible pleasures of life). It is similarly possible and punish (depriving of some pleasures). However, if you feel that your kid already grew to requirements of the highest order, then it is better not to brake it in development, and to use possibilities of new level.
the Second mainframe of requirements is a need for safety: physical and psychological. Even the most small children can be guided by such motive - will study (or something to do) that did not punish. At the same time the bad mark, deprivation of walk, well and, of course, not pedagogical flogging methods can become punishment.
If the child develops normally, and parents satisfy the above described requirements, then it forms new requirement, higher level - need for love and acceptance by other people. Here then it can already carry out something in order that it was loved and respected.
needs to be noted At once that the child since the birth needs love of parents, however to do something to strengthen their love and it can win their respect only after it has an ability to any behavior (that is not earlier
But such social motives often direct pupils of elementary grades. For respect and recognition of their abilities by the teacher and schoolmates they are quite often ready to pull up trees. So use it, indirectly or directly letting know the child that his efforts will be appreciated. For example: “If you a little more are trained to write a letter A, then Maria Ivanovna will notice how you tried and it became how better to turn out at you!“ or “I think, it will be pleasant to schoolmates to listen as you well read the fairy tale!“ .
If you noticed that such arguments work, then do not regress the child, returning it to study for candies.
At many children, unfortunately, these motives do not develop by 6 years. What to do in that case? To follow the child: to encourage and punish, using motives of the previous, simplest levels. However for the help in a growing, sometimes it is worth reminding of importance of that you were appreciated and respected not only in a family.
If safe development of your child takes its course, without meeting special barriers, then it forms a positive self-assessment and there is a requirement in self-esteem and self-acceptance. Then happy parents can already reap the fruits of the fact that the child wants to study well to respect himself (“not to drop a level“).
If your child reached such level, then be glad for it as it is already an indicator of a certain personal maturity though, notice, yet not true need for the doctrine! Now you can safely appeal to such arguments as “Prove to yourself that you it will manage!“, “It is necessary to continue to study to mature, but not to stop in development!“ or “You capable, you can master also this task!“ .only now we reached by
I emergence of need for development of the intellectual sphere. The child begins to derive pleasure from understanding of a training material, from possession of cogitative operations, overcomings of difficulties and achievement of the educational purposes. Here then it is possible to speak about true interest in the doctrine (whether it be at school or at home). When to expect this period, desired for parents? There is no definite answer. Some children ripen to such requirements already by the end of elementary school, and some... do not reach it at all.
you for certain know many adults who are not feeling not the slightest pleasure from intellectual work. Why does that happen? A lot of things depend on teachers and parents, their abilities it is not simple to force the child to work intellectually, and to teach him to derive from it pleasure.
Think whether it is frequent you instead of pressing on the pupil, you “tempt“ him with an interesting task, you invite to joint “to juggling by ideas“, to the solution of puzzles?the levels of requirements Considered by us are most important
for training of children, however their list is not full. After already described there can be esthetic and creative requirements, and also the highest level - need for self-updating, self-knowledge. Whether it is necessary to say that it is reached by not all adults, and not just children. It is, so to speak, top of a maturity of the personality.nevertheless rudiments of such requirements we can observe
I at some seniors. For them such desires how development of ideas of themselves and the opportunities can already become motives to the doctrine (“And what I lean at the solution of this task on? On what way I like to go? May I achieve these objectives? What abilities I should develop for this purpose?“ etc.). I think to move such child to the doctrine, special pedagogical intuition is not necessary.
Now, having received (or having refreshed) knowledge of sequence of emergence of requirements, try to answer a question: explaining to the child need of study (or performance of a concrete task) what arguments you use? To what block of requirements they are turned? Whether your child reached an appropriate level of development? Whether outgrew it?
It is possible, having answered these questions, you already came to a conclusion that you were unclear for the son or the daughter, addressing he (she) from height of the development and experience.
So, in attempts to create desire to study at the child, it is necessary to follow the general rules:
- use those requirements which precisely the child has (however try to be guided by the highest of available more often!)
- form requirements and desires of the following level, do not jump over
- through several steps, do not forget
- that if the simplest requirements are not satisfied, then it is hardly worth expecting emergence of higher.
That is if your child is sick, tests strong alarm or it broke the relations with teachers and peers, then do not expect from it need for intellectual or creative achievements! And better help it to solve the available problems. Only then your child will naturally and without serious consequences continue the development.
Besides these recommendations, it would be desirable to remind that age features need to be considered not only in an essence of the explanations concerning need to study, but also their form. Do not forget that the less child, the well and more simply there has to be your argument! Otherwise that “kind and eternal“ that you want to inform of, just will not be acquired owing to features of children`s memory and thinking.
needs Also to consider also remoteness of a goal or encouragement. So it is not really effective to first grader to tell that it is necessary to study to enter then the institute (it so far and about school - that little knows) or that if he studies well, then in the summer he will be brought to the sea.
Remember that small children live “the small periods“ of time therefore at all desire to go to the sea, the child will not be able to be guided by this incentive the whole year. And here week it is good to behave at lessons for a visit of circus is already more real purpose!