Rus Articles Journal

Abilities from the birth of

At first sight it seems that the newborn baby is absolutely helpless. Actually the child is born with the whole complex of abilities which help it to adapt to new conditions of extra uterine life. What abilities and as they are shown are?

Thanks to unconditioned reflexes (congenital automatic reactions which are inherent in all newborns), the newborn child makes the majority of actions reflex: sucks a maternal breast, in response to irritation moves handles and legs, squeezes handles in cams and brings them to a mouth, turns the head aside and tries to raise it in situation on a stomach.

from first minutes of life the healthy newborn is capable to suck milk from mother`s breast. If the kid is on “free“ feeding (i.e. feeding on demand when the child himself sets the mode, frequency rate and volume of food), the frequency of feedings in the first days of life can make from 7 to 12 and more times a day, including night feedings. In process of growth of the child and increase in amount of milk in mother`s breast by the end of the first month of life the frequency of feedings decreases and makes 6 - 8 time in days.

From the first days of extra uterine life works with

and zheludochno - an intestinal path of the kid. At the newborn child a first-born chair (meconium) darkly - green color, it is sterile and is allocated in first 1 - 2 day of life. From the beginning of food of the kid the chair becomes more frequent, is non-uniform (it contains darkly - green, yellow and even whitish lumps of undigested milk) a transitional chair. Already to 4 - 5 - mu to day of life the chair of the newborn gets more uniform coloring and a consistence and in many respects depends on nature of feeding.

When feeding by breast milk a chair soft, kashitseobrazny, a sourish smell, it is yellow - golden color. Chair frequency at children happens different - from 3 to 6 times a day.

When feeding by dairy mix a chair more dense, light-yellow or brownish color, with a pungent smell, and chair frequency - 1 - 3 once a day. If the chair at the baby happens once in two days, is frequent - after application of an enema or an exhaust tube, it testifies to a lock. In this case it is necessary to see a doctor for clarification of the reasons of trouble and correction of food of the kid.

B first 2 - 3 day of life the newborn child urinates very little - all 2 - 4 times. It is physiological norm, and it is caused by the fact that in the first days of life the kid receives not enough liquid and much it loses in connection with the beginning of independent breath. But already to 5 - 6 - mu to day the number of urinations will increase and will make to 20 - 25 time in days. If the newborn child seldom and urinates a little, it is necessary to think of whether enough milk he receives.

Sight

from first minutes of life the newborn sees the world surrounding it. In response to illumination of eyes a small lamp the kid blinks, screws up eyes, removes the head back. Best of all the child focuses a look at distance of 25 - 30 cm; it just that distance at which the baby sucking a breast sees a face of the mother. Most of children to the middle of the second week of life are able, though is short-term, to hold under review a moving subject. This fixing lasts only several seconds, and the movements of eyes of the newborn still unstable and spasmodic.

there Will pass only week - another - and approximate visual reactions of the child will become even more developed. The newborn of three-week age already not only stops a look on a toy, but also accompanies it with eyes to the right and to the left at some distance, at the same time the movements of eyes at the kid become already smoother and coordinate. It should be noted that the children who were born premature can fix a look a bit later, than their peers who were born in time.

For any baby, especially for irritable or been born premature, best object for visual and acoustical concentration and at the same time best “demulcent“ are the face, hands and mother`s voice. The child heard this voice in a womb and got used to it. Now the baby learns to correlate features of mother, heat of her hands to her voice and intonations. However it does not mean that the newborn does not need toys at all.

It is desirable for

that the first toys of the kid were bright (red, orange, yellow color), 8 - 10 cm in size and sounding. Moving such toy to the right - to the left, up - down, we cause tracking reaction. As “a live toy“ also the adult can act. For this purpose sing, you speak with the kid and at the same time you go near him.

On the third - the fourth week of life over a bed at distance of 40 - 50 cm on behalf of the child can hang up a bright, but not multi-color toy. It will be convenient to baby to learn to fix a look on a toy. In the next months it will be possible to change toys over a bed, to move them, to lower below when the kid begins to lift handles.

the Hearing

On the first month of life changes also reaction of the child to a sound. In the first weeks of life the healthy kid will react to a sound irritant only with start and a blinking, the movement of handles and legs (acoustical approximate reaction), but by third week of life the newborn attaches to sounds of external environment much bigger significance. So, if the child is uneasy, loudly cries or expresses the dissatisfaction with a hnykanye, it is possible to try to play with it a rattle, being out of sight of the kid, or to start singing. You will notice that the little man on 5 - 10 will calm down seconds and will stop the movement of the handles and legs (short-term acoustical concentration) then, perhaps, again will continue to cry.

By the end of the first month of life acoustical concentration of the child on sounds (aspiration to listen to the adult`s voice, a toy sound) will become even more expressed and long (long acoustical concentration).

talk to the baby More, accurately pronouncing words. Your speech has to be quiet, and intonations of a voice - gentle and tender. At the same time it is useful for kid to hear voices of a different timbre. It would be remarkable if not only mother, but also the father, elder brothers and sisters, grandmothers and grandfathers “talked“ to it.

Besides talk, to the kid parental singing which promotes its acquaintance to a variety of sounds and rhythmics is very useful to hear

. At the same time during conversation and singing it is not always necessary to stand opposite to the child, supporting direct visual contact. Sometimes it is possible to resemble around its bed, so that the kid did not see you: let him gradually learn to find a sound source.

At the moments of wakefulness of the baby can turn on the gentle melodious music for a while. Very much records of classical music, songs performed by children will approach. Sing to the kid of a poteshka and song lullabies more often, smile, change a look. Talking to the baby, it is possible to comment on the events. At this age the child reacts not to words, and to intonation. Therefore tone of your speech is very important: try not to raise the voice and not to shout at the kid even if you were tired or something are angry. The baby all the same will not be able to understand you, and here is strong will be able to be frightened.

Since the birth the kid has a number of reflexes which help it to survive and adapt to new life. These reflexes are called unconditional and are shown by involuntary reduction of muscles in response to external irritation. Some of unconditioned reflexes will remain for the rest of life (for example, a corneal reflex: in response to an easy contact of a cornea of an eye the kid blinks; glotatelny, tendinous reflexes and many others), and some will exist only 2 - 3 months, and then will die away. But, despite such short term of “life“, these reflexes are very important for been born remains.

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So, at a touch a finger or mother`s breast to a corner of a mouth of the child at it lowers a lower lip, language deviates and the head towards an irritant turns. The kid as if “looks for“ a maternal breast. The search reflex is important in the first months of life, in the subsequent it is replaced by already conscious reaction at the sight of a breast of mother or a small bottle with milk.

If to enclose a thumb in a palm of the child, he will strong seize him and will strongly hold some time thanks to a congenital hvatatelny reflex.

the kid at first sharply allocates for

In response to a sharp sound or sudden extension of legs handles in the parties, opening cams, and then reduces them, as if clasping himself with hands. This reflex can appear when swaddling the kid and Moro`s reflex is called.

Among unconditioned reflexes the protective reflex of the newborn is important. If to lay out the child on a stomach, it will instinctively turn the head aside. This reflex allows the kid to breathe even in a prone position on a stomach and is shown from the first hours of life.

Newborns can make the creeping movements. If to put the child on a stomach and to hold up the palm to its soles, the kid will make a start from it as from a support, and will move ahead thanks to a crawling reflex.

If to deliver the newborn to

on a support, it will lean on it full foot and to stand shortly on halfbent legs and if slightly to incline the kid forward, he will begin to cross legs. Reflexes of a support and automatic walking are so shown.

Parents can cause and observe reflexes at the newborn, however checks and only the doctor estimates these reflexes. On existence of unconditioned reflexes, their expressiveness and terms of fading the doctor can judge the correct maturing and development of nervous system of the kid on the first year of life. Existence of reflexes definitely provides to the child and physical development.

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Besides, to physical development of the kid on the first month of life will be promoted by its vykladyvaniye on a tummy since second week of life. Situation on a stomach is very useful for the baby: trying to turn and raise a head for several seconds, it strengthens muscles of a back and a neck; besides, in situation on a stomach gases depart better that can facilitate a condition of the kids having intestinal gripes. At the age of 1 month children with pleasure spend in situation on a stomach several minutes, raising and holding the head over a surface during of 5 - 20 seconds.

from third week of life of the kid careful parents can Already discuss with the children`s doctor carrying out to the newborn of massage and gymnastics who make multilateral favorable impact on an organism of the baby. Massage improves appetite, supports normal work of intestines, promotes establishment of the correct rhythm of a dream and wakefulness, normalizes a muscular tone, tempers the kid, promotes his motor and mental development.

In order that massage was the most effective, the child has to be in good mood. It is necessary to carry out massage not earlier than through 30 - 40 minutes after feeding not to provoke vomiting. It is not necessary to begin procedure just before feeding as massage increases appetite, the kid will even stronger want to eat, and it will demand the termination of exercises. As massage stimulates nervous system of the child, it is not necessary to carry out it in the evening: it can interrupt a night sleep of the baby.

massage Duration at this age has to make of 5 - 10 minutes. to the newborn it is still difficult for nobr to sustain longer occupations: he quickly is tired and can begin to cry. From methods of improving massage on the first month of life are acceptable only easy strokings of handles, legs, breasts, a tummy, a back and buttocks. It is desirable that parents held the first session of massage under supervision of the doctor or nurse as incorrectly carried out exercises can do harm to the child.

By the end of the first month of life kids usually please with

parents not only achievements in physical development, maturing of visual and acoustical analyzers, but also emergence of the first positive emotions in response to parental presence. During conversation with the baby mother can notice that her baby not only stops the movements of handles and legs, but also slightly opens a mouth (the so-called “oral attention“ appears), trying to respond to the speech of the adult turned to it as if. And the child can respond to tender appeals with emergence of a short-term first smile, let also not absolutely conscious. The recipe of achievement of success is simple: it is necessary only to try to spend considerable part of a free time with the kid and to give it more smiles and tender words.

Trying to achieve

from the child of record achievements in knowledge of the world, new to it, the main thing not to be overzealous. Parents should not forget that the first month of life is very intense period of adaptation of the been born little man to extra uterine life. Overloads of nervous system are especially dangerous to newborns and children of the first months of life. During this period the child as the sponge absorbs world around, his brain receives and processes enormous amount of information. For this reason small children sleep much, their nervous system as if preserves itself against overloads. The comfort and rest, especially in the first days of life, are for them main. The situation which surrounds the newborn has to be quiet, and lighting in the room - muffled. Inadmissibly, that in the room where there is a kid, the TV constantly worked, loud music sounded, loud sharp sounds and the speech were distributed. It is necessary to give to the baby the chance to get used to an environment, new to it, gradually acquainting it with various sounds. Too rough and numerous emotions from happy relatives can not just frighten and overstrain the kid, but also cause crying, and at times - and a sleep disorder in the newborn.

Development of the small child is impossible for

without maintenance of tactile contact “a body to a body“, It is necessary to take as often as possible the child on hands. It will help the baby to feel comfortable and safely in new, absolutely still unfamiliar world around. On the first month of life it is better to keep the newborn in horizontal or semi-vertical position, surely supporting a back and a head of the kid. In this situation during wakefulness the baby gets acquainted with the world surrounding it, and it is good if not walls and furniture, and smiling faces of the adults who are tenderly talking or singing kind and gentle songs catch sight to it as often as possible.

in conclusion we will notice

: education of the child demands forces and time. Stock up with patience and enjoy everyone, even the smallest success in development of the kid.