Rus Articles Journal

Japan

Japan - one of the countries of the world, most interesting to the traveler. And nevertheless, Japan seldom is on the first place among the countries where there is a wish to go. All know great Japanese literature, modern, first of all, but also and ancient, and here associations with art Japan causes much less. And this with the fact that Japanese created not just a lot of interesting and original art in different spheres. In many of them they reached the highest level, and many artifacts which remained in Japan “very best“ in comparison with other countries.

Specifics of Japan in many respects are explained by its geographical position - it is the island country on “region“ of the cultural world. The country big and inhabited, being near one of the centers of a world civilization - China, and therefore managed to create strong and original cultural tradition. At the same time thanks to a happy combination of persistence and good luck it managed to avoid overseas invasions and colonization, in absolute inviolability to keep the cultural tradition. Besides, this tradition not just dead relict of the past, but the live culture which perfectly fitted into a modern universal context and did not lose the face.

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It is interesting that it was reflected also in political culture: Japan - the only empire in the world, and a present imperial dynasty continuously governs not less than one and a half thousand years!

the Present culture of Japan was created by

after acceptance in the country of the Buddhism in the 6th century AD. Since then in it there were no gaps, and any external influences were not imposed to it, but organically absorbed. Ancient temples and shrines carefully remained, tried to spare them during internal wars and distempers and if they perished in the fires - tried to restore. Japan and the terrible revolutions and constructions of “the new world“ ruining, for example, avoided in Russia and China there are more culture monuments, than all enemy invasions combined. Owing to all this in Japan surprisingly large number of objects of ancient art, and that the most important, not in the museums, and in temples and monasteries - in those places for which this art was created, in which it can be most experienced remained.

Japan is unique

In a universal context safety of monuments of the Early Middle Ages. For Europe and the Middle East of the VII-VIII centuries were time of invasions of barbarians, internal distempers and wars on ruins of the Roman and Persian empires which led to emergence of three new civilizations - West Christian, Byzantine and Islamic. It was not the best time for art creativity, but also from this it is a little that was created, not all escaped. For East Asia (China, Korea, Japan) it was time of blossoming of Buddhist culture. In China and Korea of monuments remained a little and therefore the extensive heritage of Japan is important not only in itself, but also as the only translation of the disappeared chapters history of the Chinese and especially Korean art. One of miracles of Japan - its wooden architecture. It, without any doubt, the most safe in the world. Here thousands of medieval wooden temples - for comparison, in Russia their no more than couple of hundreds, in Norway - several tens remained. The most ancient - a pagoda and “the gold hall“ of the monastery Horyudzi (7th century) near Plank beds - are also here. For comparison: the oldest wooden construction of China belongs to the 8th century, Norway - by 11th century, Russia - by 15th century. The biggest wooden building of the world - Great Buddha`s Temple in Nare (57 by 50 m, height is 48 m); one highest - a pagoda to Todzi in Kyoto (55 m) conceding, apparently, only to a pagoda in Insyan in China (67 m).

Other miracle - Buddhist sculptures, especially the most ancient of them. As it was already told, they stand on the places in wooden temples, centuries flickering dark gilding. Despite the seeming invariance and rigidity of a canon, the Japanese religious art, as well as any other, all the time changed, and in Japan, thanks to a large number of the remained statues, it is possible to peer and notice gradual changes of tradition of a decade by a decade. If figures budd and bodkhisattv impress with detachment and rest, then images of heavenly spirits strike with an expression, and images of the esteemed monks - the accuracy and sharpness of portrait characteristics.

later achievements of the Japanese art genius are known to

more widely, it is possible to get acquainted with many objects also in Europe. The Japanese engraving which built the image daily, time of repellent details of life on height of original art is for the whole world known. The Japanese ceramics which powerful impulse was given by development of a unique tea ceremony is remarkable and surprisingly various. It live - incorrectly forms, indistinct on color, with cracks and hillocks, as if just been born on light.

At last, are admired by the Japanese gardens and parks: as landscape, closer to the European perception, and the gardens of monasteries calculated on quiet contemplation a zen creating the whole worlds by means of sand, stones and several “islands“ of a moss.

Stay in Japan - the huge gift for any who is not indifferent to beauty and appreciates good taste. The careful and creative attitude to each thing - from advertizing in the subway car to a form of a cup and a combination of flowers and smells of food on a dish, desire to fill with beauty each centimeter and every minute lives, ability to devote it a lot of time and forces (an admiring an Oriental cherry and maple to leaves) - quite naturally for Japanese. For this reason the reminiscence about stay in Japan will remain to one of the strongest impressions in life of any to whom has the luck to set foot on its beautiful land.