Are born or become the leader? Part 1
over similar also ancient asked the Question of the reason of the power of the individual. The subject of leadership drew attention of scientists throughout many centuries. Confucius, Aristotle, Platon, Machiavelli, Montesquieu, M. Weber, 3 tried to get into secret of this phenomenon. Freud and many others.
Selective relationship between children
the Individual in crowd is a grain of sand among the mass of other grains of sand raised and which are carried away by wind. Most of people are changeable in own beliefs, doubt correctness of the acts. With the advent of the leader any uncertainty disappears. Indestructible self-confidence of the leader generates immense trust of others. They speak to themselves:“ He knows where he goes, we will go there where he knows“. And as soon as living beings are reunited in a certain number - all the same, whether it be herd of animals or human crowd, - they instinctively put themselves under authority of the head. Weight - obedient herd which not to live in forces without mister. Usually leaders do not belong to number of thinkers - it is people of action. They do not possess an insight as the insight conducts to doubts and inaction.the Picture of relationship between peers in groups of kindergarten is rather difficult and ambiguous
. To one peers, inventive in games, preschool children treat with sympathy and aspire to them, avoid others, despite presence at them of the same qualities.
Children`s leaders sometimes more than pedagogical personnel, lives of children set the tone in kindergartens. The authority of the leader and force of his influence often surpass influence of adults.
On features of behavior and some properties of character of children - preschool children can be subdivided into the following groups:
- the leaders and organizers having strong commitment;
- the activists possessing a personal initiative with an optional hardness of their character;
- of the single, living life;
- the rebels entering fight against leaders against the establishments accepted in collective;
- the badgered members of collective (according to G. Fortunatov).
Existence of these small groups in collective is explained by selectivity of human communication. One children look for societies of the most mobile, active peers, others are attracted by quiet, passive children. One feel near strong and resolute more surely. Others, on the contrary, prefer to be on friendly terms with weak, shy, finding satisfaction in protection.
the Leader - the preschool child is first of all the active, initiative personality who is capable to change an external situation and to coordinate activity of others, to organize and lead them.
Studying relationship of children, the researcher A. S. Zaluzhny revealed typology of leaders whom subdivided on situational (the leader - the intellectual, the leader - the organizer, the emotional leader etc.) and constants. The ordinary opinion that some children are “by nature“ not capable to leadership is far from truth, can be the leader and happens actually under the corresponding conditions each child, one, at the next moment another etc. now. In other words, in various concrete situations of group life certain members of group who surpass others at least in some one quality, but as this quality and is necessary in this situation are allocated, the person possessing it becomes a leader.
Thus, appearance of the leader is result of the place, time and circumstances under which the person has to show the qualities, necessary for this situation, so that the result met expectations of group. At an assessment of success of activity of the leader its objective result, how many recognition of this success from other children is important not so much.the Leader are born
- or become? whether
Can develop the leader potential of the personality? If it is possible, then how it to make? There are two points of view. The first assumes that the leader needs to be born that training and education does not play any role. This assumption is based that the person has seven congenital instincts: self-preservation, reproduction, altruism, research, domination, freedom and preservation of advantage. The person is born with the genetic program of adaptation, with the calling which also is destiny (“given rise cannot creep to fly“). From what instinct wins first place at the specific person, its typology on the dominating instinct depends.
the Second point of view consists in that, as living conditions and nature of education exert impact on congenital requirements, therefore, leader potential can be developed though certain inclinations of psychophysiological character are for this purpose necessary (for example, good health, the developed attention and memory, ability to productive thinking).
Development of leader potential of the personality since the early childhood, from our point of view, is caused by interaction biological (features of temperament and health) and social factors.
1. Physical healthwith
Health - a condition of an organism at which it is correct all its bodies normally work. The leader carries out functions of the initiator, the organizer, the inspirer, therefore, he first of all needs to have strong nervous system, to be hardy, vigorous, physically strong to show high degree of the general behavioural activity.
2. The account in educational work of specific features of temperament of children
Each temperament has the positive and negative sides. At any temperament there is a danger of development of undesirable properties: at the phlegmatic person - slackness, indifference to surrounding; the choleric person has fieriness, sharpnesses; at the melancholiac - isolation, uncertainty, shyness; the sanguine person has raspylennost etc. Thanks to plasticity of nervous system it is possible to influence temperament, but corrective actions should be selected such which would develop strengths of temperament.
the Success in work with melancholiacs and phlegmatic persons assumes a support on encouragement even of insignificant manifestation of speed, acceleration of speed, mobility, quickness, and also a praise for manifestation of such qualities, important for success, as steadiness, tolerance, ability to long concentration, it is frequent also accuracy, diligence. To develop activity, mobility of children it is necessary gradually, considering their real opportunities in accumulation of speed. It is easier for these children to prove, ego-trip in art activity (musical, graphic, etc.) in quiet games, designing, a molding, on occupations in small groups on structure, with children, relatives, benevolent on character, on sociability degree. > it is important to p to support and direct to
concerning children with choleric temperament their energy to useful affairs, to exclude from a situation what overexcites nervous system, but at the same time it is necessary to develop and strengthen process of braking by the organization of quiet activity and exercises, to try to obtain reserved behavior, ability to reckon with people around and not to wound their self-esteem.
At children with sanguine temperament should form steady attachments, interests, to accustom to finish the begun business, to pay special attention to quality of activity, not to allow superficial and negligent performance of tasks, to control acts, actions of the child more often, to offer the movements demanding concentration, accuracy, restraint. At the same time it is not necessary to be zealous excessively in restriction of physical activity of choleric persons and sanguine persons.Experts in the field of physical training of preschool children recommend
concerning children with the increased need for physical activity not to restrain it, and to regulate intensity, nature of the movements (to offer the movements demanding concentration, accuracy, restraint). It is useful to train for this purpose such children in the exact movements - to a throwing in the purpose, to rolling of a ball on the limited square (a floor board, “path“ from cords, a gymnastic bench, etc.) catching of a ball, all types and ways a lasagna are useful. It is important to fill physical activity of such children with a certain contents. Absence it is followed, as a rule, by fieriness, clamorousness, aggression of children. The aimlessness of movements quickly tires not only them, but also people around.
3. Formation of an internal autonomous position of the child
Is established that the feeling of an autonomy begins to develop in two - three years and amplifies to four - five years. At this age independent actions lead the child to awareness of the separateness from the adult, independence and at the same time limitation of the opportunities. Research interests of the child distract it from the adult, and sensation of fear and dangers returns to it. Therefore, the main function of parents and teachers consists in providing the safe field of activity and satisfaction sometimes of the protection which is required for the child and safety. At hyper guardianship or lack of due protection independence is replaced with indecision, uncertainty in the competence, the frequent request for the help that leads to fixing in future environment of the subordinate, a dependency.
4. Experience by the child of success in activity
B three - four years children seek for independent achievement of result in activity and, having reached the desirable, they right there seek to show the progress to the adult without whose approval this progress substantially loses the value, and joyful experiences in their occasion are significantly saddened. The negative or indifferent attitude of the adult towards the shown result causes affective (emotionally strong) experiences in children, induces to try to obtain with redoubled zeal attention and a positive assessment. Having got desired approval, the child is proud of the achievements that, in turn, increases his initiative, confidence in ability to work independently and the level of claims. Than more often the child is proud of the achievements and than areas of the application of its abilities are more various, especially intensively there is a process of interaction of the child with the social and subject world and formation active - leader - behavior.
5. Realization of claim on recognition and aspiration to superiority
After emergence of the emotional attitude towards itself as “good“ at the child arises new socially necessary education - aspiration to be recognized. Claim on recognition - one of the most significant human wants. It is shown that children even more often begin to address adults for an assessment of results of activity and personal achievements. Claim on recognition proves also that the child begins to watch what attention is paid to it and what - to his peer or the brother vigilantly. Children aspire to that adults were with them satisfied and if deserve censure, then always they want to correct the developed relations with adults. Unrealized claim on recognition can lead to undesirable forms of behavior when the child begins to think out deliberately a lie or to brag.
K of five - to six years the sphere of achievements, merging with the sphere of the attitude towards itself, promotes emergence of children`s vanity - the strongest incentive to self-development and self-improvement. Children begin to treat very jealously progress of peers and very reluctantly allow their superiority in something.by
It is conventional that for children of the most characteristic the game form of behavior is. When one child plays with another, he always seeks to win. A. I. Rozov, watching games of children, noticed such paradoxical fact: the lion`s share of playing time leaves not on actually game (development of muscles, realization of potential opportunities, familiarizing with social norms etc., according to widespread psychological theories of game), and on disputes over an occasion of the one whom “on justice“ to consider as the winner, “legality“ of the scored goal or the awarded points. In game, on the one hand, the child wants to be “as all“, and with another - “it is better, than all“. The aspiration to be “as all“ to some extent stimulates development of the child and brings up him to the general average level. A. I. Rozov notes that not incidentally children evade from games in which do not try to obtain progress, that is not giving the grounds for sense of superiority.
the Aspiration to leadership is no other than realization of the potential, aspiration to superiority over people in the habitual environment. It is remarkable that the problem of leadership disappears only in case of loneliness (there is nobody it to try to obtain) and as the person since the early childhood grows and develops in interaction with people, the desire to surpass others pursues it throughout all life. This desire, undoubtedly, acts as the stimulating factor awakening energy; it makes active the personality and allocates her with persistence and persistence on overcoming of difficulties.
Leadership initially assumes the competition therefore between children the conflicts are possible. Here teachers and parents can choose one of two strategy of behavior: the active judge (the adult expects possibility of the conflict and in time neutralizes it) or non-interference (granting an opportunity to children to resolve the conflict situations, counting on what thus children is leaders will gain experience of the solution of problems, interacting with opponents equal to).
That receiving approval did not become for children end in itself, the task of parents and teachers is in installation creation (for itself and for children`s collective) that each of children the best in something. Then, to become the leader, children will fight not for “place in the sun“, and will try to show the imagination, the creative and individual abilities.
6. Features detsko - the parental relationsthe experience of the relations with mother got in the early childhood in many respects determines by
Proceeding from the theory of attachments which founders are J. Boulbi and M. Ainsworth further social life of the child. According to this theory if primary object of attachment (mother) ensures to the child safety, reliability and confidence in the security, in the future it without effort adjusts secondary attachments with other people.
In the early childhood at the baby the key characteristic of is defined by how I am perceived by object of my attachment which mother (“I most often is - the one who is embraced at whom watch to whom smile, quickly react to my crying“ and so forth) . Thus, for the unloved, offended children I act as the object which is not deserving love and attention of people around, and object of attachment (mother) - as exacting, everything forbidding and cruel. The less reliable is communication with mother, the more child is inclined to suppress the aspiration to other social contacts. Optimum relationship and “an image I“ develops at children whose parents care for them, gives emotional support and at the same time allows and maintains independent activity and the child`s autonomy.
Nature of emotional connection develops very much early and possesses big stability. With age the model of relationship fixed in infancy and as its consequence, the individual`s attitude towards themselves become more and more habitual, steady and practically do not give in to conscious control.
7. Estimation of activity of the child adult
Prevailing for children of the senior and younger groups is the general positive (or negative) a sverstna assessment(“it good“ or “it bad“). Children quite often point to presence at companions of achievements in different types of activity (“well draws“, “well is on duty“, “well dances“, “quickly puts on, everything clasps and ties“), to features of appearance of the peer. In some groups where the tutor pays special attention to behavior of children at dinner, children note - “he well eats“.
Ya. L. Kolominsky one of the first found out that children first of all realize and estimate those qualities and features of behavior of peers which are most often estimated by the tutor and on which, therefore, their situation in group depends.
B six - seven years begin to be formed a self-assessment. The criteria used by the child at a self-assessment substantially depend on the teacher and parents who, unfortunately, are not always objective. The main reason of the formed underestimated child`s the self-assessment - aspiration of parents and separate acts teachers and offenses of the child to draw the generalizing negative conclusions about his personality in general. The reason of high self-esteem is that parents immediately refer the slightest success of the child to outstanding qualities of his personality.by
Thus, at the child with the underestimated self-assessment usually increased self-criticism, he does not believe in himself therefore he does not make due diligence and efforts to achieve success including recognitions of peers. The child with high self-esteem, on the contrary, overestimates the opportunities and also not really tries. Children with a high self-assessment feel more surely, they show the interests, abilities more courageous, more actively, set before themselves higher purposes, than those who with other things being equal underestimate a self-assessment.