Rus Articles Journal

Bratchina of sacred Sofia. Part 2

the Beginning

After final accession of Novgorod to the Moscow principality in the 15th century for local businessmen hard times came.

the Interrupted flight

Rooting out the remains of independent spirit, the authorities in passing spoiled also “investment climate“. Especially the new capital on Neva which was given all preferences and privileges undermined position of Novgorod. By the outcome of the XVIII century the local industry decreased to ten semi-handicraft workshops. Total number of workmen in 1830 - e hardly reached years 60 people. Approximately then Vishera Canal which connected Volkhov and Msta started up the main trade stream bypassing Novgorod. But especially strongly struck it construction of the Nikolaev railroad. An unfaltering hand the emperor laid the route between two capitals on a ruler. The line passed far away from the city, having deprived of it access to the main thing then to means of modernization.

Only by the end of the 19th century after Alexander II Novgorod`s reforms, as well as all country, began to come to life slowly. At the beginning of the next century even new take-off was outlined, as a monument of what serve ruins of brewery on the central embankment, near drama theater. By the beginning of World War I there were about 38 factory institutions here. But this rise was short and ended with arrival at first of revolution, then Civil war and socialist experiment. And during World War II the city was wiped almost out.

However, today`s Novgorod managed to recover from accidents of the XX century and again actively joined in business activity. At the end 1990 - x it even became the second city of Russia (after Moscow) on volumes of foreign investments (from world “grandees“, in particular, the Dirol - Kedberri firm located here). The resumed by itself free trade concentrated first on the Trade party. But soon to it it became close in old Soviet department stores, and under a new commercial complex equipped the building of the former factory on the Sofia party. After a while it became rather small and there, and the latest “torzhishcha“ built up further away - on waste grounds along Bolshaya Peterburgskaya Street. However, to open the business on the Trade party it is still considered is more honourable and it is more prestigious.

History repeats itself and in other relation. In 1980 on the Dutch Tsvolle`s initiative in Europe the Hanseatic union of Modern times urged to revive traditions of centuries-old cooperation of the Baltic cities was founded. With 1993 - go the new Union the full member included also Novgorod, and in 2009 - m there will take place the main Hanseatic fair. 160 cities - members of the Union will present the goods and arts there. Cooperation it is not reduced to especially economic. So, at the expense of ganzeyets it was restored in 1999 - m St. Nicholas Cathedral on Yaroslavovy dvorishche. In memory of it steps of the temple decorate plates with names of the cities. Besides, at the Union so-called “Young Hansa“ urged to promote exchanges between students and to development of youth business works.

All this did not lead

to serious changes in city shape yet. First of all Novgorod setting as an object to become the leader of new European Hansa did not create the appropriate infrastructure yet. But while the authorities complain about a lack of means, results of a private initiative are already noticeable. In the city there will be more than ten the small small restaurants and coffee houses quite capable to compete with European, besides world famous grandiose Kremlin restaurant “Detinets“.

the hope that a lot of things will improve by preparation for the city anniversary approaching in 2009 Is. Serious injection of federal funds is expected, and the local administration is already strengthened by Moscow and Petersburg “Varangians“ for control over these means.

Wooden gramoty

Modern Novgorod - really absolutely new city. Old - it was destroyed at first by bombardments, then long occupation, plunder and fights. Even the cross of Sacred Sofia with the well-known pigeon which is brought down by an artillery shell was taken away to Spain as a trophy by the Spanish voluntary division lodging in Detingqie (only two years ago it was identified in a collection of one of the Spanish regimental museums and returned). Germans sorted and prepared for sending to Germany a monument “the Millennium of Russia“ for what they laid to a monument from the station a narrow-gage railway, but did not manage to take away.

remained to

After departure of invaders from two and a half thousand houses which were in the city forty dilapidated. Inhabitants who were in time ran up. No more than fifty returned from the neighboring woods on the ashes (!) - the city it was necessary to occupy anew.

After war hotheads suggested to turn the remained ruins into the museum at all, and to build anew on other place so Novgorod quite could repeat destiny of Ryazan after Batyev of disorder. But his influential admirer - the winner of the Stalin award architect Alexey Shchusev interposed in the matter. In 1943 - m, one year prior to release of the city, it began to make the new master plan at own risk. And of 1944 - the m managed to convince the management to approve this plan assuming “to frame“ organically escaped ancient monuments with new houses. Construction of the industrial enterprises was not provided, Detinets and Yaroslavovo dvorishche turned into reserves. And as population of the added to the category of museum objects city should not have exceeded 50 thousand inhabitants, and building was assumed exclusively two-storeyed. But soon the plan considerably exchanged. Novgorod it was decided to turn into the industrial center, the population it to increase ten times, and to build up the old city with “Stalin“ four-storey buildings. This post-war “reorganization“ strongly changed its shape, in particular, having introduced here monumental memory of the characters of the past heroized during a war era whom former Novgorodians not always favored. The new grandiose bridge through Volkhov received a name of Alexander Nevsky, his bust - in attractive shape of the actor Nikolay Cherkasov who played the prince in the movie Eisenstein - appeared on the square in front of the city station. (However as the cherkasovsky portrait appears also on the Order of Alexander Nevsky, it can be considered quite initial.)

the Industry in the city was got rather quickly - mainly military, electro - and radio engineering. And here restoration of ancient monuments which mostly lay in ruins took many years. The family of restorers Gerkov spent thirty years that from half a million remained pieces of plaster to collect the well-known frescos from the temple of Saviour on Kovalyov.

Gradually wounds grew with

. The most viable was, apparently, that part of historical fabric of the city which is connected with local learning. Nakhodka of birchbark manuscripts in 1951 opened existence nearly competent medieval Novgorod is universal. Besides, in it existed several centers attracting to themselves scientific brotherhood. First of all it is northern part of Detints, near Sacred Sofia, is once even separated from other Kremlin by a wall. Here since ancient times monks worked on correspondence of books, and in 1030 on Yaroslav`s initiative the secular educational institution, the first in Russia, - school for “adolescents“ whom about three hundred were gained was arranged. Here at the beginning of the XVI century the first full Church Slavonic translation of the Bible was developed (before in Russia only separate bible books went in lists).

the Second such place on the scrappy map of modern Novgorod can be considered as

Antoniyev the monastery - on the Trade party, in kilometer is lower across Volkhov. Founded in 1106 by Anthony Rimlyanin, according to the legend, come to Novgorod on a stone (the boulder applying for a role of this stone - in appearance, however, quite local - and now it is possible to see on a church porch of the main monastic cathedral), it soon became the important center of book knowledge.

In particular, its walls remember famous Quiricus, the original author in Russia of the mathematical treatise chronology. Here in 1740 one of the first theological seminaries was open. Now in its walls humanitarian faculties of neogenic Novgorod university are located.

the merge of three small local higher education institutions Made five years ago (pedagogical, polytechnical and agricultural) gave explosive effect, and the Novgorod university became the real center of gravity of the main resource of any city - youth. She feels quite freely and even begins to make quite adult plans for the future. So, students of Polytechnic University put forward the project of the monorail road and new bridge through Volkhov - a student`s axis which will in passing solve part of transport problems of the city which is already suffering from traffic jams.

I there is no wonder. Recently Novgorod not without success positions itself as an ideal point for carrying out various conferences. Place really suitable. From both Russian capitals rather nearby, but it is silent. In the city about half-dozen of excellent hotel complexes adapted for such actions and in the project some more.

In general future prosperity Novgorodians connect

with tourism on a sample of skilled Europe where the former medieval capitals, having stayed to steam of centuries in desolation, now perfectly feel, healing delights of provincial antiquity of soul of tourists who went crazy from vanity of the postindustiralny megalopolises.

Respectively, there is a lot of work and imagination in Veliky Novgorod put in “event tourism“, constantly thinking out new fascinating holidays. The actions collecting both domestic, and foreign public follow one after another almost without breaks. Winter “Christmas-tide in Vitoslavlitsakh“, June festival of folk art and crafts of “Sadko“, July “Novgorod to a kupalya“, a bell-ringing festival “Zlatozarny rings“, and also an April “Cathedral of military teams of memory of Alexander Nevsky“ on whom masked enthusiasts compete in historical fencing and archery enjoy special popularity. Sometimes even arrange indicative storm of Detints.

But the main charm of Novgorod for the slow and thoughtful traveler - in remarkable walks on vicinities. To any of podgorodny monasteries (from which in the most part there were only one main temples) - about an hour of the slow course. In the museum of wooden architecture of “Vitoslavlitsa“ it is possible to imagine how medieval “inhabited“ Novgorod approximately looked, entirely wooden. Going there on foot it is necessary to overcome about one and a half kilometers of the marshland, but then it will be rewarded wholly because will see surprising beauty a churchyard at Annunciation Church on Myachin - the only construction which escaped from the monastery of the 12th century. Around it every day - artists with easels. And further - the bulk dam surrounded with tercentenary willows conducts straight already to Yuryev to the monastery from where the view of Ilmen opens, in translation from Finnish - “the lake having the leading role“.

Whimsical Ilmen which is constantly changing outlines and having the leading role, as a rule, bad in the ancient time promoted development in Novgorodians of enterprise much, brought up the people ready to any adversities. Nowadays in Novgorod other forces have the leading role absolutely, but enterprise, apparently, only arrives.