Rus Articles Journal

Bratchina of sacred Sofia. Part 1

about ten Years ago ancient Novgorod began to be called Great officially again. This claim is how thorough, will show the future. The present city is very silent and modest. Property it especially tsenimo both its inhabitants, and the tourists arriving here from the fussy capitals. But not only it.

Charm of modern Novgorod - absolutely special type of. This charm of the city with tragic destiny. He endured complete cessation of human continuity twice: the players of its inhabitants were considerably changed in the 15th century at Ivan III and in the 20th century after fascist occupation. As a result of all peripetias historical fabric of city life repeatedly was broken off that found reflection and in present topography of Novgorod. However, today in this “loskutnost“ its main charm is also covered. The potential difference and aspirations of the not similar eras which left a mark in local architecture creates special internal tension. It only first seems that aristocratically - the graceful temple of Saviour of Transformation on Ilyin Street - the unconditional masterpiece of an era of the Novgorod greatness - is haughtily discharged of the next monastic farmstead built in magnificently - coarse Moscow style XVII of century, and the nobility does not wish the latest neighbors standing opposite - two-storeyed semi-barracks of poor post-war building and mansions of present nouveau riches... Having wandered between them, soon you begin to feel that all these “neighbors“ opposite carry on the intensive dialogue which is constantly generating new meanings.

Where Sofia

Modern Novgorod left far beyond medieval walls, acquired new buildings of industrial and sleeping quarters. But all the most interesting still occurs in the central part framed with the remains of ramparts which can be passed through a slow walking step for an hour. In this compact space several historical “rags“ find room, however.

the Sofia party with Detints (Kremlin) most kept majestic spirit of the free city. This spirit was absolutely special here. Somewhere since the 11th century Novgorodians lived in confidence that their earth - the protected by God monastery of “truth“ which is directly operated by Sofia - God`s Knowledge. It was understood, on the one hand, mystically abstractedly, and on the other hand as we often observe in the Middle Ages, - absolutely literally. The contractual diploma of 1326 of Novgorod with Norway according to which ambassadors were entrusted to stipulate an ambit remained, and “God and the king of Norway“ were specified as guarantors of firmness of border. That is Norwegians acted as representatives of the king, and Novgorodians - God. The same thought is illustrated by coins of the Novgorod stamping of the 15th century on which the posadnik receives symbols of the power directly from sacred Sofia.

In other words, all powerful Novgorodians only executed will of the true Governor and Trustee of the earth. For definition of this highest, God`s will in different difficult cases different receptions were used. The bishop could be elected by a lot, and a posadnik (the head of civil authorities) - according to the solution of a vech, but also the national voice was always perceived as “conductor“ of the God`s voice.

Respectively all residents of the Novgorod volost made the uniform Christian community which members were connected by the brotherhood relations (and so each other “bratyeyu“ and called regardless of the class status). This community stretching at the time of blossoming to Western Siberia was under construction by the principle of a nested doll. Bratchina of the lower level was made to “ulichena“ - inhabitants of one street, the following step - “konchansky“ communities - united inhabitants of each of five urban areas (“ends“).

the Center of this world order was, undoubtedly, St. Sophia Cathedral - it was not without reason said in an ancient saying:“ where Sofia, there and Novgorod“. The present temple built in 1045 - 1050 years instead of burned down oak, - the most ancient stone construction in Russia. Despite rather modest sizes (27 × 25 meters in the plan and 38 meters high), it looks majestically thanks to restraint and laconicism of architectural forms. Unlike initial wooden church “about thirteen tops“, looking, probably, precisely as famous Sofia Kiyevskaya, at present Novgorod - six heads, are only lifted they much higher. The Byzantine and Kiev masters built a cathedral, but local materials and tastes obviously affected result. The laying does walls of rough plates of the Volkhov limestone uneven, as if molded, giving to all most ancient Novgorod constructions some surprisingly “friendly“ look (and even the imposed late plaster does not eliminate this effect).

Novgorodians worked on decoration of a cathedral much, collecting by centuries in its vestry preudivitelny products of local and overseas masters. Them and today it is possible to see part in the local museum though many objects of art were taken out from Novgorod by Ivan III and are now stored in the Moscow Kremlin.

But until now the western entrance are decorated by the bronze gate made in the middle of the 12th century in far German Magdeburg. On 48 cast plates antiquated and evangelical plots are represented. But Novgorodians would not be Novgorodians if did not bring and here improvement. The Novgorod master Abraham, probably, collecting a difficult design replaced two original plates with new: one with the portrait, another with the jumping “wise man - kitovrasy“ (centaur) - the hero of legends, popular in Russia.

From the most ancient lists of a cathedral made by the Greek masters the insignificant part escaped, but also the tiny fragment gives an idea of skill of artists. The characteristic legend is connected with this list. As if having represented in Christ Vsederzhitel`s dome, in the morning masters found out that the blessing Christ Redeemer`s hand is squeezed in a fist. Twice her Greeks - and all for nothing rewrote. Were not talked some sense by the voice from above which enjoined to leave everything as it is because “when my hand will reveal then to this hail the end yet“. Other superstitious Novgorodians claimed, as truly saw Christ Redeemer`s hand powerlessly I raskrytoit at the moments, heavy for the city. And there is a lot of those.

to

However, without relying on one spiritual protection, Novgorodians took care also of a material aspect of business. As the central point of defense served the city Kremlin - Detinets. The first wooden fortress was put on this place in 1044. In the XIV century it was replaced by stone construction, and present Detinets is in the main complete at the end of the 15th century according to the plan, approved as already grand duke Moscow Ivan III.

Detinets - it is unconditional, the tourist center of Novgorod. Besides Saint Sofia and a belfry, there is the richest historical museum located in the former buildings of offices here. Besides, in fortifications there is the main branch of city philharmonic hall which program for modern fashion is comprehensive: at once behind easter concerts of spiritual chants to you will suggest to listen to St. Petersburg “auctioneer“ Sergey Rogozhin.

But the old center leads not only museum life. Directly under Detints`s walls, on the bank of Volkhov, the main city beach, always populous in a sunny weather, and on the opposite side of the Kremlin - the circular boulevard serving as the place of appointments and enough noisy amusements for teenagers is located.

the Eminence and falling of Veliky Novgorod

in the XIV century the rich and prospering Novgorod was a tidbit for numerous “collectors of Russian lands“. Especially difficult there were at it relations with Moscow. However, at Yury Danilovich, Alexander Nevsky`s grandson whose descendants formed the Moscow princely dynasty, Novgorodians found in Moscow the faithful ally in fight against encroachments of the Tver princes. But already in government of the following prince, Ivan Kalita, the relations fell apart. Kalita even went to Novgorod war, however, without success. The following campaign was made by Dmitry Donskoy in 1386 (the next attack of ushkuynik - combatants - robbers on light rowing vessels was the cause). Expecting it, Novgorodians burned two tens podgorodny monasteries to deprive of the besieging basic bases. Having understood that citizens are ready to fight outright, the prince Dmitry took 8 thousand rubles in compensation of damage and left back home. At this particular time Novgorod began to be called officially Great that also a title not to concede to neighbors - grand dukes. Expecting from Moscow of troubles, Novgorodians built the second defensive ring - the Roundabout city from which powerful shaft where present citizens come to evening walks and spring picnics remained. And once these strengthenings got married powerful oak walls stone towers from which till our time only one escaped - White. But also shaft did not help. Moscow got stronger, and Novgorod, the rich man and extending, internally weakened. To the middle of the XV century that brotherhood which cemented was destroyed and fastened the republican state. Everything began with the fact that citizens made quite widespread mistake, having offered freedoms for the sake of “order“. In 1350 - e in order to avoid veche distempers it was decided to assign to boyars - leaders of urban areas, or the ends - a lifelong rank of posadnik (to the biggest of five ends, Nerevsky, it was allowed to have two posadnik). From among this six the main city posadnik - sedate was annually chosen. In 1417 the number of posadnik was finished to 18 which together with 5 tysyatsky, the archimandrite and 5 abbots (priors of monasteries of five ends) made Council of misters, like the Venetian senate. The public race for power interfaced quite often to fights on Volkhovsky Bridge stopped, but also interest in political life disappeared. If before the Novgorod commoner could play a significant role at least during the periods of elective campaigns when candidates had to cajole in every possible way him, then now all power concentrated in hands of the consolidated seigniorial estate. In 1446 the Novgorod chronicler was forced to state melancholically:“ There was no truth in Novgorod and a fair trial“. The common people began to glance at the Moscow princes without disgust. The rest was a trick. Already Vasily Temny connected in 1456 Novgorod by the enslaving Yazhelbitsky contract. And the decisive step in mastering the city was made in 1471 by Ivan III. Under the slogan of protection of Orthodoxy (a false rumor as if Novgorodians for the sake of the union with the grand duke Lithuanian are ready to pass into Catholicism was floated) the Moscow sovereign acted in a campaign and broke the Novgorod army battling without big enthusiasm on the river Shelon. Over Novgorod the protectorate sort was established, and in January 1478 - go its independence was liquidated finally. All traditional authorities were abolished, and everything departed to the Moscow deputy. Even the veche bell was taken away to Moscow (but to the capital did not reach that generated a touching legend of an origin of sonorous Valdai kolokolets). Having violated the promises made in 1478 not to interfere with the property relations, Ivan III in several years was engaged in “search of the small fry“. To one thousand Novgorod seigniorial families were moved to “the local cities“, their ancestral lands was received by the Moscow owners imposed, as a rule, from grand-ducal lackeys. So, for the first time the structure of the Novgorod population considerably exchanged. But, most likely, full success in business of submission of Novgorod of the Moscow power was not achieved. And in 1570 - m Ivan IV with oprichnik army arranged bloody disorder in the city, eradicating potential “traitors“. Since the legend says, the lead pigeon who “hardened“ for horror at the sight of oprichnik atrocities located on the Novgorod Sofia`s cross. Actually, decline of Novgorod also began with the end of the 16th century. A bit later, in the Time of Troubles, to the city got also from the Swedish occupation. And finally Peter the Great who cut through in the neighbourhood with a wide Novgorod door the “window to Europe“ undermined its value. In 1703 - the m on Neva put the new capital which received big privileges. And in the 20th century Veliky Novgorod lost even a rank of a local administrative center as the former province was a part of the neogenic Leningrad region. The city decayed and any more was allocated with nothing from the provincial centers.

the City chronicle
of 859 g (conditional annalistic chronology) - “Vjstasha Slovene, a reksha Novgorodians, both Mer, and Krivichi on Varangians and their izgnasha for the sea, and not Dasha to them a tribute, a nachash to yourself vladet and the cities you put; and not be in them the truths, and a vozst a sort on a sort, and hosts and capture, and a krovoproliti of a besprestana“ - the first mention of Novgorod in the dated part Patriarchal, or Nikonovskoy, chronicles. It is conditionally accepted for date of foundation of the city.
of 862 g (conditional annalistic chronology) - On call of Slavs allegedly were “from the German“ “three brata with all sort, Rurik, Sineus, Trivor; and byst Rurik the elder in Novegoroda... And from those Varangians of nakhodnik prozvashasya Russia, and to the ottola the earth Russkaa, an izha will catch a nougorodstiya essence lyudy and to present day, before bo naritsakhusya Slovene, and nowadays Russia from those the Varangian prozvashasya: to a sitsa bo Varyazi zvakhusya Russia“.
of 882 g - the Novgorod warrior Oleg as a result of a successful military campaign connects under the power of Rurik`s successors all volosts along a Dnieper way “from the Varangian in Greeks“ - Novgorod, Smolensk, Lyubech and Kiev.
of 990 g. - Christian belief in 988 which Refused to accept voluntarily - m (on the traditional account) when Vladimir Svyatoy sent the metropolitan Mikhail from Kiev, Novgorodians were baptized the bishop Jehoiakim Korsunyanin whose success was provided by the notable voivode Dobrynya and the Kiev tysyatsky Putyata christening the city “fire and a sword“. Novgorodians took up arms, but at night Dobrynya set fire to the posad. Novgorodians laid down arms and went to a cross. The main idol of Perun was dumped to Volkhov. But how the legend says, punished peremetchivy Novgorodians and, floating under Volkhovsky Bridge, threw on it the club, having sentenced “this laugh, children Novgorod“. Since then the bridge became the place of many contentions. - Kiyevskaya intestine war painfully struck br with of 1015 Novgorod. The prince Yaroslav, having quarreled with Novgorodians, beat them “the best husbands about one thousand“. But nearly the next day received news of villainies of Svyatopolk who artfully destroyed brothers Boris, Gleb and Svyatoslav. Then Yaroslav had to be reconciled and look for with Novgorodians them the help for what were granted to them “The Russian truth“ and as if still the certain diploma granting to Novgorodians the right to invite princes at discretion.
of 1136 - Novgorodians expelled the prince Vsevolod Mstislavich and called Svyatoslav Olgovich, having returned themselves the “liberty in princes“ granted by Yaroslav and temporarily lost. From now on princes are forbidden to live in Detingqie, to collect taxes and to own in the Novgorod volost lands. Formation of the Novgorod veche republic begins with this “revolution“.
on February 22, 1170 - the Suzdal army of Andrey Bogolyubsky, Novgorod which was going “to look for kind and dashing“, approached city walls. For the fourth day of a siege the voice from heaven enjoined to transfer to the archbishop Ioann to walls the Virgin`s icon from the temple of Saviour of Transformation on Ilyin Street. The icon was exposed the next day on a wall between Dobryniny and Prussian streets. Here it was vulnerable by an arrow. And immediately residents of Suzdal “were attacked by an insanity“ and soldiers nearly shot down each other. Novgorodians moved on a sortie and charmed all Suzdal army. But the prince Andrey found a justice quickly, having blocked the city transportation of the food. Starving Novgorodians requested the world and were forced to agree to all conditions of Bogolyubsky who considerably cut off city liberties. As events would develop further, it is unknown, but in 1174 - m the prince Andrey, the opponent of Novgoroda, it was killed by conspirators from the immediate environment.
of 1259 - the Team of the grand duke Vladimir Alexander Yaroslavich (to whom the nickname Nevsky will be assigned subsequently) was under Novgorod accompanied by big Tatar group. Resistance of the Novgorodians who refused to render the Horde tribute in 1257 was broken. The city, not the victim of Batyev of invasion, got under the Horde yoke. Also it was promoted by the prince whom Novgorodians expelled twice as he attempted upon their ancient liberties.
of 1323 - Novgorodians founded fortress the Nutlet on the Ladoga island Nut and stopped the Swedish expansion; the Orekhovsky peace - the first in the Russian history “everlasting peace“ of the Russian principality with the neighboring country is made.
of 1418 - the Commoner Stepanko grappled with the boyar Daniil Bozhin. Fight ended with big disorder, the crowd of smaller people “is a lot of razgrabish of houses boyarjsky“. “Stepanki`s mutiny“ in Novgorod demonstrates deep crisis of the republic. For the first time the distemper in the city was not a consequence of fight of the ends and veche parties, and the conflict of nobility in general and city bottoms.
of 1471 - the First campaign of Ivan III to Novgorod, Shelonsky fight.
of 1478 - the Second campaign of Ivan III to Novgorod, final elimination of the Novgorod independence.
of 1570 - Having received a denunciation as if Novgorodians planned again to separate from Moscow and to join the Lithuanian state, Ivan IV undertook with oprichnik army a campaign against Novgorod and subjected it to devastating defeat. Only one Malyuta Skuratov with the people reported:“ four hundred ninety people are trimmed by manual truncation to a tysyashch, and from an arquebuse fifteen people are trimmed“.
of 1611 - the Novgorod earth became formally independent state under the Swedish protectorate. of 1617 - On the Stolbovsky world between the Moscow state and Sweden Novgorod is returned by br to Moscow.
of 1727 - formed the Novgorod province including five provinces: Novgorod, Pskov, Velikolutsky, Tver and Belozersky. In a year to it attributed also Olonets lands. The province practically coincided with borders of the independent Novgorod earth.
of 1788 - It is claimed and the plan of “regular“ building of Novgorod developed by the St. Petersburg architects which substantially destroyed traditional system of city streets began to be executed.
of 1865. - On an initiative of the archpriest Nikolay Bogoslovsky in the Zlatoust tower of Detints the Historical museum opened.
of 1927 - liquidated the Novgorod province, its territory was a part of the Leningrad region.
on August 15, 1941 - on January 20, 1944 - Occupation of Novgorod by the German troops.
- the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR formed on July 5, 1944 the Novgorod region.
on July 26, 1951 - the Worker of archaeological expedition Nina Akulova found between layers medieval a bridge roll of birch bark which was taken first for a fishing float. Having looked narrowly more attentively, archeologists made out on letter “float“. The first birchbark manuscript was so found. of 1992 - Historic center of Veliky Novgorod and monuments of vicinities are included in the list of the world cultural heritage of UNESCO.
on January 27, 1998 - Deputies of city and regional thoughts at a joint meeting unanimously decided to return to the city its historical name: Veliky Novgorod.

Continuation