Rus Articles Journal

How to help the child with violations of process of the letter and reading?

Language acquisition, exact, correct oral and written language - a necessary condition of formation of the successful personality. This important task faces both parents, and teachers and logopedists. It is possible to solve it only in close cooperation. The role of the logopedist in realization of an objective is especially important if the child has violations of oral and written language. Now there is enough literature on overcoming of violations of a sound pronunciation.

Unfortunately, violation of one structural component of speech system involves secondary and tertiary violations. Among them there is, as a rule, the general underdevelopment of the speech, violation of processes of reading and the letter, violation of memory, concentration of attention, verbally - logical thinking etc. To teach to read and write children - a difficult task. And not all children easy and just are given these, according to adults, elementary things. The child can be in many respects cleverer and more talented than peers - and to do the most improbable, from the point of view of parents or the teacher, a mistake during the reading and the letter. For example, to pass letters: chsa - hours; To Write all words or pretexts with words together; to make two of one word: ok and but - a window, etc. Unfortunately, many parents, and sometimes and teachers carry these mistakes to a carelessness. At best the teacher recommends to parents to write more dictations with the child. And then there comes the difficult period both for parents, and for children. The child has a negative attitude to the letter, to a subject, to school. To avoid it, analyse the child`s mistakes. If such “ridiculous“ mistakes are not casual, and repeat regularly, then the child needs to address for consultation the logopedist. Existence of resistant mistakes of this kind says that at the child process of the letter - a dysgraphia is partially broken.

What is a dysgraphia?

of the Elementary school teacher from experience of the work is known that in a class there can be about 30% of the pupils having various violations of the letter. Process of the letter which at the adult is automated, causes a set of problems in the child. The letter is an irregular shape of speech activity, multilevel process. Rechedvigatelny, visual, all-motive analyzers take part in it recheslukhovy. Between them in the course of the letter close connection is established. The letter is closely connected with oral speech, extent of its development. It is based on ability to distinguish speech sounds, to isolate them in a flow of the speech and to connect, to say correctly. To write the word, it is necessary for the child:

to determine by
  1. its sound structure, sequence and the place of each sound;
  2. to correlate the allocated sound from definitely letter;
  3. to reproduce a letter by means of movements of a hand.

to write the offer, it is necessary to build mentally it, to speak, keep the necessary order of writing, to break the offer into the words making it, to designate limits of each word.

If the child has violations at least in one of these functions: acoustical differentiation of sounds, their correct pronunciation, the sound analysis and synthesis, the lexicon - the grammatical party of the speech, the visual analysis and synthesis, spatial representations, can arise violation of process of mastering the letter - a dysgraphia (from Greek “count“ - the letter). The dysgraphia is the specific disorder of written language which is shown in numerous typical errors of resistant character and caused by not formation of the highest mental functions participating in process of mastering skills of the letter. How to define whether the help of the logopedist is necessary to the child? And if there is no expert, owing to various circumstances, also the teacher, the parent cannot get the qualified advice. How to help with this situation to the child? For a start it is necessary that the elementary school teacher (parent) knew what mistakes belong to specific, disgrafichesky. Classification of disgrafichesky mistakes. The mistakes caused by not formation of phonemic processes and acoustical perception:

  1. admissions of vowels; vsit - hang, a komnta - the room, urozhy - a harvest;
  2. admissions of consonants: a komata - the room, blow - only;
  3. admissions of syllables and parts of the word: rubbers are shooters;
  4. replacement of vowels: to food - food, sesen - pines, lyugkiya - easy;
  5. replacement of concordants: the tva - two, a rocha - a grove, uroshay - a harvest, bokazyvayed - shows;
  6. of shift of letters and syllables: onko - a window;
  7. nedopisyvany letters and syllables: a cher - through, on a branch - on branches, diktan - a dictation;
  8. building of words excess letters and syllables: detit - children, snow - snow, diktanat - a dictation;
  9. distortion of the word: maln - small, a chayshchik - thickets;
  10. joined-up writing of words and their any division: two - two, boychas - a striking of a clock, in sya - all;
  11. inability to define limits of the offer in the text, joined-up writing of offers: Snow covered all earth. White carpet. The Small river to birds hungrily froze. - Snow covered all earth with a white carpet. The small river froze. To birds it is hungry.
  12. violation of mitigation of concordants: big - big, only - only, umchalis - dashed away, mach - a ball.

of the Mistake, caused by not formation lexicon - the grammatical party of the speech:

  1. of violation of coordination of words: about fir-tree of a branch - with a fir-tree branch, appeared a grass - there was a grass, huge butterflies - huge butterflies;
  2. of violation of management: in a branch - with branches; dashed away to a thicket - dashed away in a thicket, the chair sits - sits on a chair;
  3. replacement of words on sound similarity;
  4. joined-up writing of pretexts and separate writing of prefixes: vroshche - in to a grove, to the nastena - on to a wall, on a booze - bulked up;
  5. admissions of words in the offer.

of the Mistake, caused by not formation of visual recognition, the analysis and synthesis, spatial perception:

  1. replacement of the letters differing in different position in space: sh - t, d - in, d-;
  2. replacement of the letters differing in various quantity of identical elements: and - sh, of c - shch;
  3. replacement of the letters having additional elements: and - c, sh - shch, p - t, x - of l - m;
  4. mirror writing of letters
  5. admissions, the superfluous or incorrectly located elements of letters.

of the Mistake, the caused inability of children to acquire large volume of a training material, to remember and use the rules of spelling acquired orally on the letter:

  1. an unaccented vowel in a word root: WADA - water, chisa - hours;
  2. spelling of ringing and deaf sounds in the middle and at the end of the word: zup - tooth, a path - a path;
  3. designation of mitigation of concordants;
  4. a capital letter at the beginning of the offer, in proper names.

allocates Recently one more group of mistakes which consider it necessary to carry to disgrafichesky if they have steady character. Speak about the children having such type of mistakes:“ Both hear, and write“. Classification of mistakes is based on the reasons of their emergence. It will help the teacher (parent) how to establish the reasons of difficulties, and it is correct to define a type of violations of process of the letter and to plan work on overcoming of these violations.

Types of violations of the letter

In special literature are available various classifications of disgrafiya, but all of them are based on the reasons of emergence of violations. Let`s allocate the following types of violations of process of the letter:


- the acoustic dysgraphia

is the Reason of emergence of this type of violations the wrong pronunciation of sounds of the speech. The child writes words as says them. That is reflects to an owl a defective pronunciation in the letter.

the Acoustic dysgraphia

is the Reason of emergence of this look

violation of differentiation, recognition of close sounds of the speech. On the letter it is shown in replacements of the letters designating whistling and hissing, ringing and deaf, firm and soft (-p, d - t, z - with, in - f, of - to, - sh, of c - with, of c - t, of the h - shch, about - at e - and).

the Dysgraphia because of violations of the language analysis and synthesis

the Reason of its emergence - difficulty at division of offers into words, words on syllables, sounds. Characteristic mistakes:

  1. admissions of concordants;
  2. admissions of vowels;
  3. of shift of letters;
  4. of addition of letters;
  5. admissions, additions, shifts of syllables;
  6. joined-up writing of words;
  7. separate writing of words;
  8. joined-up writing of pretexts with in other words;
  9. separate writing of a prefix and root.

the Agrammatichesky dysgraphia

the emergence Reason - an underdevelopment of a grammatical system of the speech. On the letter it is shown in change of declensional endings, misuse of pretexts, sorts, numbers, admissions of sentence parts, violations of sequence of words in the offer, violations of semantic communications in the offer and between offers.

the Optical dysgraphia

the emergence Reason - not formation visually - spatial functions. It is shown in replacements and distortions on the letter of graphically similar hand-written letters (and - sh, p - t, of t - sh, in - d, - d, of l - m, e - with , etc.). Having defined a type of violations of process of the letter, you can plan the main areas of work with the child.