Rus Articles Journal

Physical development and health of the teenager

In 9 - 10 years at girls and in 11 - 12 years at boys begins the new and responsible period of life - teenage age.

Adolescence. the Rapid, uncontrollable growth and development, improvement of physical and mental capacities, formation of will, character, outlook occur for rather short time (about three years) and come to the end in youth. The teenage and youthful age is united sometimes one name - the puberty period. It comes to an end at young men to 18 - 19, at girls - by 16 - 17 years. By this time body proportions are completely formed, growth and ossification of a skeleton comes to the end. During puberty at young men body weight increases on average by 34 kg, growth - by 35 cm, a breast circle on 25 cm; at girls respectively on 25 kg, on 28 cm and on 18 cm. These changes are connected with intense activity of the systems and bodies regulating processes of growth and providing normal activity of an organism. At the same time the regulating systems (first of all nervous and endocrine) continue own development and formation.

Maturing of an organism - process not idle time, not always takes place smoothly. That is why teenagers demand fixed (but not importunate) attention of parents, a constant control, and sometimes if separate links of a difficult chain of development and formation of an organism, and direct intervention of the doctor do not “work“. In 10 - summer age physical development of boys and girls is approximately identical, but in 11 years of the girl are ahead of the peers on growth (by 1,6 cm) and to weight (by 1,7 kg). In 12 years of the girl are ahead of boys on all indicators: on body length (on 3,1 cm), to weight (on 2,9 kg), circles and excursions of a thorax (on 4,5 and 0,7 cm). In 13 years this difference still increases.

However in 14 years all indicators of physical development become higher than

at boys. These distinctions are connected with the fact that girls for 2 years before boys enter boyhood, at them there comes so-called pubertatny “jump of growth“, i.e. considerable acceleration of growth and weight earlier, At girls it is observed aged from 10,5 till 13 years, at boys - from 12,5 to 15. Pubertatny “growth jump“ precedes puberty approach. There is a development and increase of activity of endocrine glands, genitals. Puberty comes at girls in 12,5 - 13 years, at boys - in 14 - 15 years. At this age at girls periods begin, boys have pollyution.

At teenagers anatomic development of nervous system comes to the end with

. By 13 - 14 years formation of the motive analyzer comes to an end that has huge value for formation of endurance, the dexterity necessary in work.

growth of skeletal muscles Caused by endocrine stimulation significantly is reflected by

in muscular force. So, if in 10 years boys squeeze a hand dynamometer with a force of 16 kg, then in 15 years this indicator is equal to 35 kg; at girls force of a hand increases for the same period on average from 12,5 to 28 kg. It should be noted that at girls muscular force reaches the maximum development by 15 years. Angularity, characteristic of teenagers, awkwardness and awkwardness (that is explained by more rapid growth of bones and muscles in length and temporary lag of their development in thickness) pass at young men after 15 years, at girls - slightly earlier.

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At teenagers heart quickly grows. Welcome, to one system of an organism at teenage and youthful age such great demands, as are not placed on cardiovascular. Heart weight from 10 to 16 years doubles, and volume increases approximately by 2,4 times. Also the cardiac muscle (myocardium) changes, becomes more powerful, is capable to throw out in vessels at reduction bigger amount of blood. Aged from 9 till 17 years the shock volume of heart, i.e. the amount of blood which is thrown out by heart for one reduction increases at boys from 37 up to 70 ml, and at girls - from 35 up to 60 ml. Heart rate at rest gradually decreases. In 15 years pulse at boys is equal 70, and girls have 72 beats/min, by 18 years decreases respectively to 62 and 70 beats/min, i.e. becomes same, as at adults. However decrease in frequency of serdtsebiyeniye happens unevenly, and it is connected with growth rates and puberty.

For example, at the same age (15 years) for quickly developing girls warmly - the vascular system works approximately as well as for adult women, and for their contemporaries who are lagging behind in growth and development, honor kind of work of heart same, as at younger schoolgirls. The same is observed also at boys. Therefore, the first feature of the blood circulatory system of the teenager - its close connection with growth rates and maturing of all organism.

Should note

that development of cardiovascular system not always gets on well at promptly growing organism behind the general rates of development, and increase in mass of heart sometimes lags behind increase in mass of all body. That is why sometimes tall young men and girls have complaints to weakness, easy fatigue, especially at physical activities, tendency to faints when overheating or sharp change of position of a body is noted. At emergence of the symptoms of warm weakness connected with discrepancy of growth and increase in the sizes of heart, some parents regard them as display of a heart trouble, try to transfer the son or the daughter to most sparing mode, protect from any physical activities. It is a big mistake. The only medicine capable to bring into accord to a possibility of the blood circulatory system and the increased requirements of an organism of the teenager, systematic physical exercises, sport, work serve. Unfortunately, now most of modern children, teenagers, young men (and adults) the main trouble had an underloading of muscles, low-mobility.

It is frequent young men and girls, hesitating of the weakness and awkwardness, absolutely cease to go in for physical culture. So-called drop heart which if the teenager does not begin to go in for physical culture in time, will not increase and further is as a result formed.

In the developing blood circulatory system also discrepancy between a gleam of vessels on which blood is thrown out of heart, and the increased heart capacity often meets. In this regard arterial pressure increases. So, if at boys and at girls of 10 years arterial pressure is equal 95/55, then by 17 years it increases to 120/65 at young men and to 115/60 at girls.

the Third feature of work of cardiovascular system at teenagers is temporary violation of its nervous regulation. It is connected with reorganization of activity of endocrine and nervous systems and is expressed by frustration of a rhythm of heart, increase or decrease in frequency of serdtsebiyeniye. At the young men and girls developing harmoniously such frustration are not long and quickly take place without any treatment. But, despite this, any deviation in action of the heart, especially changes of sizes of a blood pressure, should not escape parents from attention. Most often they arise at the weakened children having chronic diseases of a nasopharynx (tonsillitis, antritis, pharyngitis) and oral cavities (especially caries of teeth). And these diseases are not harmless at all and further make impact first of all on warmly - vascular system.

Parents have to know

also that big intellectual loading in combination with an inactive way of life leads to violation of regulation of a tone of blood vessels that causes hypotonic and hypertensive states which develop further in hypotonia or a hypertension. It is possible to warn so a failure a reasonable daily routine, an accurate work-rest schedule, and, above all - systematic occupations by physical culture and sport.

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On the international congress on school hygiene it was established what the total day academic load of school students should not exceed 7 - 8 hours (at six-day working week it is even higher than labor load of adults). However practical loading of pupils during the working day is much higher, especially in the senior classes. As for younger school students, for them 7 - 8 - the hour working day too big loading.

according to the estimates of scientists, school students of 18 hours in days are in a condition of a full or relative immovability , i.e. sit or lie. Therefore, on vigorous muscular activity including on games, occupations 6 hours a day remain only physical culture. But also these 6 hours (at their maximum and rational use) can bring big benefit to health.

However, according to the researches conducted in the different districts of Moscow, 51% of teenagers are not in the fresh air after return from school at all; the break between cool and house occupations more than at a third of children does not exceed 1,5 hours. It is clear, that in this case school students get to work without having had a rest, and working capacity at them is sharply lowered. According to the same data, 28,4 percent of pupils spend for preparation of lessons more than 3 hours, 12,8 percent - more than 4 hours, and 4,4 percent - even more than 5 hours. And 73,7 percent of school students do not suit any breaks for rest, i.e. sit at a desk continuously for 3 - 5 hours.

What is done by seniors in the remained time? It appears strong, not everyone from them will see off it in the movement. More often after the long and tiresome working day teenagers settle down in convenient chairs and watch telecasts. And 37,3 percent from them spend daily at the TV 1,5 hours, 19,4 percent - 2 hours, 7,2 percent - more than 3 hours. It is easy to count that at such mode children do not have time for sports activities, physical culture, and physical education classes, obligatory on the program, only slightly compensate a hypodynamia.

One of nodal questions of modern generation - acceleration of growth and development of children and teenagers, i.e. an acceleration problem. The term “acceleration“ designating acceleration of growth and development of children and teenagers but to comparison with the previous generations, relatively recently - - “stepped“ less than ten years ago from special books and magazines on pages of popular editions.

On modern representations, the growing organism - difficult self-regulating system which development is defined by the genetic program put in it. Growth of each child, anatomic and physiological features of all organism, separate bodies and systems, order and rates of their maturing, individual properties, adaptive opportunities at all stages of life are defined by the hereditary constitution of the child.

Acceleration of growth and development is most indicative

at teenage age. Modern Moscow boys of 14 years “grew up“ in comparison with peers 20 - x years with 146,4 to 162,6 cm, i.e. on 16,2 cm, their weight increased from 34,3 to 51,2 kg, at girls respectively from 146,7 to 160,9 cm and from 39 to 51,3 kg. At teenagers moved on earlier age and puberty.

And puberty terms are influenced significantly by neither racial features, nor climate, nor a geographical zone of accommodation. Widespread opinion on earlier puberty of the southern people which meets sometimes even in medical literature, actually not confirmed hypothesis. Have essential value in this plan socially - economic conditions and nature of food.

Acceleration creates a number of problems in education, especially teenagers and young men. If in 30 - 40 - e years achievement of puberty coincided with the beginning of work, then now the situation considerably changed: already quite created in physical and nervously - the mental relation of the young man and girl very long appear on position of children. There were contradictions between the accelerated physical maturing and rather overdue social maturity. Professional activity demands additional preparation in technical training college, technical school, higher education institution that postpones the independence time further away.“ Scissors“ between acceleration of physical maturing and a delay of a social maturity increase and in connection with shortcomings of family education when children and teenagers are excessively sponsored, grow in the atmosphere of exclusiveness and often do not carry out any household chores, have no sense of responsibility for the acts. Such situation is aggravated existing (especially in the cities) with a demographic situation - prevalence one - or a dvukhdetny family.

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With acceleration also the certain “conflict of generations“ when modern parents do not want, and at times and cannot understand the grown-up children. Teenagers are irritated by petty guardianship of parents; they consider that they treat them as with small, do not understand them, wound their dignity. With peculiar to youth maximalism they claim that the intellectual world of adults is very poor and therefore it is impossible to talk about anything serious to them. However “intellectualism“ of the modern teenager, large volume of the knowledge acquired by it quite often is reached by the price of liberation it from labor duties in a family and in the course of school study. And meanwhile the problem of labor education is integrally connected with formation of a social maturity of the teenager, information, not synchronous with acceleration of physical development and saturation. And here on the first place the labor education promoting formation of respect for material values to work, education of call of duty and responsibility to itself and people around acts.

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When training teenagers - akselerat even if they are rather capable and are ideally suited to the chosen sport, there are certain problems. Large, early developed, they are capable to carry out large volume of physical activities on occupations. But though on growth and weight they do not concede to adults, extent of development of all systems of an organism “fell short“ of adult level yet: nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems are in a formation stage. It is few functional reserves as processes of growth and maturing demand the considerable tension of all systems, big expenses of energy. And “ease“ with which young cope with big loadings can manage too expensive. Revaluation of physical capacities of teenagers conducts to an overtraining, violation of health.