Rus Articles Journal

Parental needlework. Began part 2

To a huge regret, the situations demanding from parents of certain “rukodelchesky“ skills are not limited only to implementation of hygienic procedures. The real help at specific problems with children`s health very often demands ability to make something with own hands, without waiting for appearance of people in white dressing gowns.

It is about rather simple manipulations capable, nevertheless, considerably to facilitate life and to you, and your kid.

Medical needlework

the Most frequent, not so much medical, how many diagnostic procedure - measurement of body temperature. To huge happiness, thanks to achievements of a civilization there was a choice of devices for measurement - the various electronic thermometers, thermometers which are built in pacifiers, etc. Nevertheless, the ordinary maximum mercury thermometer - indispensable attribute of the home first-aid kit in each house. Readers, probably, will be surprised to the name “maximum mercury thermometer“, but quite so call it officially - having reached the maximum value, the mercury column does not come back to an initial position at change of ambient temperature. A classical point for measurement of temperature - an axillary hollow, and everything the known norms are focused on it. It is quite possible to use an inguinal fold, to measure in a mouth, in a rectum - in two last “places“ temperature, as a rule, exceeds that in an axillary hollow on 0,2 - 0,4 degrees.

should wipe with

Before measurement of temperature skin that was not damp, when using the mercury thermometer to pay attention to that the tip filled with mercury completely was shipped in a skin fold. The standard time of measurement - 10 minutes.

the Main advantage of electronic thermometers - absolute safety (mercury, flew down) and speed of measurement (second, at most one - two minutes), not any child moreover sick, will sustain (will stay in bed quietly) 10 minutes.

Would like to pay attention: at all advantages of electronic thermometers their accuracy quite often leaves much to be desired (the speech, certainly, goes about simple and cheap products). No wonder therefore that the mercury thermometer causes bigger respect and trust in the vast parental majority; if measured quicker yes did not break - the price to it would not be... In this regard I strongly recommend parents to test the electronic thermometer in a planned order (i.e. without waiting for diseases, and right after acquisition of the device) - to take temperature to them, and then usual mercury, a difference if that is found, to remember and consider further.

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Intestinal gripes at children of the first year of life are very often caused by the increased gas generation, and use of an exhaust tube within several seconds improves a condition of the child and gives to parents chances for quiet night.

Exhaust tubes are on sale in drugstores, “svezhekuplenny“ it is desirable to boil, further - it is rather good to wash out in flowing water. To sterilize is not present special sense (because the place where the tube is inserted, is usually far from sterility), but under one condition is a personal exhaust tube of the specific kid. Before introduction the thin end of a tubule needs to be greased - optimum medical vaseline, but also any vegetable oil will approach. The child is stacked or on a back (raising legs up), or on the left side, pressing the legs bent in knees to a stomach, - the choice of left side is caused by anatomic features of an arrangement of a straight line and sigmovidny gut. Depth of introduction of an exhaust tube should not exceed of 3 - 5 cm in the course of introduction, besides forward, it is possible to make also rotary motions. Very important rule - any efforts!

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is rare

what child it is possible to grow up that it was not necessary to resort to a cleaning enema: locks at kids - the phenomenon very widespread. Always it is desirable to have an enema with a removable tip. Purchase, processing and sequence of actions, including situation the child and depth of introduction, - are similar described above. Boiled water of room temperature is used (optimum 20 - 22 º Ń). Theoretically the amount of water which is required to the newborn - about 30 ml, in six months - of 80 - 100 ml, in a year - is enough 150 ml. At the same time, the concept quantity is very conditional. It the adult uncle can enter quietly 1 liter, and in about 10 minutes to send it to communicate to a toilet bowl. With the baby such number does not pass, and the situation at which liquid was entered is inadmissible, and did not wait for a chair: the entered liquid heats up to body temperature and begins to be soaked up from intestines, and together with it useful substances are soaked up not really, to put it mildly.

So, we enter the processed enema tip, we connect the pear filled with the necessary amount of water, we squeeze a pear and we take a tip, having squeezed previously the child`s buttocks (that the entered liquid did not come out at once). If through 5 - 10 minutes after that did not manage to wait for a chair, it is necessary to enter repeatedly an enema tip that there was water. If kcal very dense, procedure it is necessary to repeat several times.

Should notice

that introduction of an exhaust tube is less traumatic, again - without any efforts it is possible to enter it on 1 - 2 cm further, than a dense tip of an enema. Therefore the most acceptable and safest option - to enter liquid through an exhaust tube, connecting an enema to its wide end. It is clear, that in this case it is not obligatory to have an enema with a removable tip at all.

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the Special role in medical needlework belongs to the so-called “the distracting procedures“. The most typical options of actions - mustard plasters, banks, hot foot bathtubs. It would be desirable to emphasize that the specified procedures never carry an urgent and binding character. They are widespread mainly in the territory of the former USSR, are used for treatment of various sharp respiratory infections, in an overwhelming case are harmless, do not influence significantly a course of disease.

the Distracting procedures very much help parents because give the chance to realize in practice the classical mental principle “well something is necessary to to do“.

As the main thing in the distracting procedures - derivation of parents from sad thoughts, is very important that they did not deliver to the child of unpleasant feelings and did not pose threat for his health. Therefore we, first of all, will pay attention to what should not be done.

the Global principle - any thermal influences should not be carried out if body temperature higher than 38 º S. Vsegd should be remembered that the child, owing to more intensive metabolism, develops more heat, in comparison with the adult therefore it is repeatedly easier to overheat it. When the father soars to himself legs, water temperature depends only on patience of the father and can reach 80 º With, but, according to the majority of domestic reference books, water temperature when carrying out to the child is hotter (!) foot bathtub should not exceed 40 º C. Such figure can seem to many readers at least strange as cases when babies in the principle and without any treatment are bathed in forty-degree water are frequent...

Ready (pharmaceutical) mustard plasters, according to most of mothers, “very strong“, and difficult will not agree with it. Put them usually or through a gauze, or a reverse side, standardly recommended duration of execution of 8 - 10 minutes. After removal of mustard plasters skin is washed warm water, oiled vaseline or vegetable.

of the Technician of statement of medical cans it is not really simple. We will console those who do not own in ascertaining of that fact that it is quite possible to do without this knowledge, and for seized skills we will notice: banks and their sadistic version “can massage“ cannot be applied at any skin, allergic or infectious diseases, at tendency to bleedings, in situations when the child receives the preparations lowering coagulability of blood (the same aspirin). Banks in principle are not recommended to children of preschool age. Anyway duration of procedure should not exceed of 10 - 15 minutes.

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At treatment of the child in house conditions have enough

- often there is a need of introduction of medicines to a nose, ears and eyes. Manipulations these simple, are used practically in each house. Nevertheless, the mentioned options of medical parental needlework are regulated by a number of elementary rules, and parents are simply obliged to know these rules.

Previously we will emphasize

: it is not about what drugs need to be used, and how it should be done.

the General rules

the Choice of dosage forms is small

, is limited to ointments and liquid preparations - most often drops, slightly less often and applicable only to a nose - sprays.

the Most important and quite obvious rule - purity of hands of the main manipulator. If there is a possibility of the choice, it is desirable that procedure was carried out by the family member, the least inclined to trembling of extremities.

of Medicine, entered into a nose and eyes, should not be cold - it is necessary to heat them at least to room temperature surely. It is very actual because favourite and very convenient place of storage of drops for the vast majority of the population is the home refrigerator. As for drops in an ear, here the situation is more serious: the cold liquid entered into external acoustical pass often causes dizziness therefore any preparation before use should be heated - optimum to body temperature. For this purpose it is the simplest to find the relative with warm hands and to ask it to take a flakonchik several minutes.

Practically all modern preparations released in the form of drops by the firms respecting themselves and the patient have the special lid combined with a pipette. Here problems are not expected. If there is only a vial of liquid, to it the pipette is required. It is desirable to sterilize the acquired pipettes boiling, but there are some nuances... The pipette consists of a glass tubule and a rubber barrel. Not any rubber safely maintains contact with high temperature therefore it is rather good to wash out elastic bands flowing water, and here tubules can be boiled quietly.

Gathering medicine in a pipette, it is necessary not to be fond of its quantity and to hold a tubule vertically that medicine did not get to rubber part.

Fine and very convenient substitute of pipettes (safe, sterile, inexpensive) are disposable syringes of small volume - 1 - 2 ml calculated on solution - or so-called insulin. Moreover, if drops are placed in a sterile flakonchik, then we have an opportunity not to break its tightness: we wipe with alcohol a rubber pro-barrel, we puncture with a needle and we gather in the syringe. We take out a needle from a flakonchik and we disconnect from the syringe. As a result we have the container with sterile solution. Capacity which does not spread and does not break which is convenient for heating and conveniently to apply.

the Nose

In order that medicine has effect, it is previously quite good to clear a nose in that, certainly, a case if there is a slime congestion in the nasal courses. Children of the age of reason carry out it by means of a smorkaniye, with small and unreasonable it is more difficult. Here it is necessary or to suck away slime special rubber grushka, or to enter into a nose neutral drops (various options of salt solutions, most often - physiological). These solutions soften slime, promote its independent effluence and facilitate suction.

presence of the assistant who will provide to the child semi-lying situation is desirable for

For a successful instillation, will take hands. Children are more senior can sit with the thrown-back head or to lie (without pillow). In the course of a dropping it is necessary to try that the tip of a pipette did not touch skin - it is not the law, but a wish. At once after necessary (appointed the doctor or determined by the instruction) the quantity of drops is entered into a nostril, it is necessary to turn the child`s head of this half of a nose aside. The described manipulation promotes uniform distribution of medicine on a mucous membrane of the nasal courses.

Medical ointments are entered by

into a nose by means of wadded turundochek. If it is about use of antiviral ointments (for example oksalinovy) with the preventive purpose, then the effect of medicine does not depend on depth of introduction of a preparation: be not fond, of 0,5 - 1 cm more than is enough. From a tube ointment is squeezed out directly on a turundochka, the last is entered into a nose and the roundabout is made. It is desirable not to save and use separate turundochka for each nostril. At treatment of the spot (a nose furuncle) which swelled up in a nose sometimes use ointments with antibacterial and resolvents. In this case by means of a Q-tip ointment is not just smeared on an internal surface of the nasal courses, and applied directly on visible “sore“.

Ears Once again we will remind

to

of need of preliminary heating. For a start it is desirable to remember rules of hygienic cleaning of ears (we already wrote about them) and to carry out this procedure. It is optimum to lay the child sideways or on a back (the head at the same time respectively to turn). Further it is necessary to straighten the channel of external acoustical pass whenever possible. Usually at children of the first year of life it works well by procrastination of an auricle slightly down, and at children is more senior - kzad and up. The necessary quantity of drops then it is very good to persuade the child to lie down quietly of 10 - 15 minutes is entered, and then to pass to the second ear. Arrangements not always are productive, but 10 - 15 should wait for seconds surely, and further to enter wadded “wick“ that liquid did not flow out into acoustical pass. As hygroscopic cotton wool will undertake not less than a half of medicine, it is necessary to increase at least twice the necessary quantity of drops - in that, certainly, a case if obviously not to do without cotton wool.

At treatment of average otitis quite often the rupture of an eardrum arises and the special drops having effect directly in an ear cavity are used. For the best penetration of medicine into an ear cavity at once after introduction of drops it is necessary to press down several times a finger a trestle.

Into ears are quite often entered by the wadded turunda impregnated with medicine. There is no special knowledge in this procedure, well unless to try to do a turundochka longer - that the fair piece of cotton wool stuck out all - of an ear and there were no problems with its extraction.

by

As for ointments, use them for treatment of inflammatory diseases of external acoustical pass, as a rule, infectious (fungal, bacterial). The algorithm of actions is similar that it is described by us concerning a nose.

of an Eye

Between a back (internal) surface of a century and a forward surface of an eyeball the space which call “a conjunctival bag“ is. Any medicine (in the form of liquid or ointment, it is insignificant) after hit in a conjunctival bag is quickly enough and evenly distributed on all external surface of an eye. It is promoted by two moments: blinking and continuous allocation of tears.

the easiest way to inject a drug in a conjunctival bag - to slightly delay a lower eyelid and to drip necessary amount of medical solution. It is the best of all to carry out this procedure in horizontal position, and it is clear that with small children not to do without assistant.

Ointment is entered by

similarly. All modern eye ointments are issued in tubes with long toonchik therefore no additional tool for a mortgaging of ointment is required. Earlier for this purpose special glass sticks were used (one end of a stick had a thickening in the form of a rake).

only one eye Quite often inflames, but a certain preparation is appointed in both. At treatment infectious (virus or bacterial) conjunctivitis is impossible that the tip of a pipette or a tube with ointment touched an eye. If you are not sure of the abilities, then it is better to begin with that eye that become stronger, but the same pipette or the same tube for a sore and healthy eye cannot be used. (With the cut-off nail, certainly) it is convenient to use purely washed up mother`s finger for an ointment mortgaging, and two pipettes - it are not so expensive (only do not mix them!).