The anatomy of observation
Thanks to observation of people distinguishes the signs and objects having insignificant differences, notices distinctions in similar, can reduce time of perception of a sign, object, process to a minimum. Professional knowledge, and also the thought processes providing operating with them allow to realize and understand the observed phenomena. The understanding observable is a certain type of cogitative tasks in which the issue is resolved: what does it mean or what it belongs to?
Observation is the mental property of the touch organization which is based on feeling and perception. It is professionally important for big group of professions.
Thanks to observation of people distinguishes the signs and objects having insignificant differences, notices distinctions in similar, sees them at the fast movement, at the changed foreshortening, has an opportunity to reduce time of perception of a sign, object, process to a minimum.
Observation first of all is mediated by process and properties of feeling and perception, and also conditions of their course. Observation assumes well developed visual analyzer, high absolute and relative sensitivity. >
it is pertinent to p to remember Here words of the remarkable observer K. Paustovsky who considered development of sensitivity of the visual analyzer by the most important condition of observation. He wrote:
a good eye - business acquirable. Work, you are not lazy, over sight. Try month or two to watch at everything with thought that you should write it paints. In the tram, in the bus, you look at people quite so everywhere. And through two - three days you are convinced that before you did not see on faces and the 100-th share of what was noticed now. And in two months you learn to see, and you should not force yourself to it any more.
Thanks to high sensitivity the possibility of a thin differentiation, vision hardly noticeable appears.
Already in development of sensitivity influence of personal preferences and installations begins to affect. Observation gains selective character. Therefore it is possible to meet the people having the high level of sensitivity to perception of the nature and the processes which are happening in it, but poorly distinguishing the states and processes arising in their interactions or in work of equipment.Still to a large extent personal features are shown by
during the understanding and understanding that the person sees what he watches. Intelligence of observable depends first of all on the volume of the ideas and concepts of the corresponding phenomena and processes which are available for the person. It is possible to comprehend what was seen thanks to its inclusion in already developed informative structures which make informative experience of the person. This process is mediated also by cogitative activity in which there are not only a systematization and classification perceived, but also its transfer to verbal level, so - generalization.
N. V. Timofeev - Resovsky is the biologist who was thinking highly in the researches supervision also as experiment, emphasized that at supervision it is possible to see something only if you know that it is necessary to look for that it is necessary to see. Sometimes several people having various professional level or interests in various areas looked on same, and at an exchange of impressions it became clear that the one who had no necessary knowledge or did not know what needs to be seen saw nothing.
Means, professional knowledge, and also the thought processes providing operating with them allow to realize and understand the observed phenomena. Results of the understanding and understanding perceived will be mediated by features of memory as exactly thanks to it completeness of the representations and concepts making structure of knowledge of the person, his professional experience is provided. It is possible to say that the understanding observable is a certain type of cogitative tasks in which the issue is resolved: what does it mean or what it belongs to?
the Third prerequisite of development of observation - communication of observation and forecasting. Forecasting conditions in the course of interaction of people special:
- limitation in time;
- versatility of object of the forecast (people);
- almost always - deficiency of information necessary for the forecast;
- impossibility to consider all variety of the reasons which influence object of the forecast.
Therefore most often for forecasting uses an extrapolation method. It is that regularities and typical manifestations of the person in the past and the present are postponed to the future. The error of extrapolation consists that each observed case is considered typical even then when it that is not. “Why you trusted in this unfamiliar person?“ - ask the deceived elderly woman.“ It made very good impression: polite, well keeps, it is perfectly dressed“.
In psychology the whole direction on studying of an opportunity to reveal psychological essence of the person through his supervision and perception developed. At preservation of some steady external forms of expression of mental states their diverse, dynamic characteristics and forms of manifestation were found. Moreover, also the variety of individual manifestations of mental states was considered. As external manifestations of the person can also be object of supervision only, for development of observation it is important to know about what mental phenomena they tell these or those observed signs.
- the First specific feature of observation consists in that in external behavior or in the appearance of the person to see its internal, mental, states or properties.
- the Second feature of observation consists in need to differentiate signs through which the person expresses himself outside. They can be expressed through a physiognomic mask, a bearing, gait; the mental phenomena proceeding in the present and also through a mimicry, gestures, poses. the Third feature of observation is connected by
- with interest in the person as to object of perception and supervision. On the basis of this interest selectivity of perception is formed, experience of supervision over the person and visions of its mental states is quickly created. Professional knowledge makes that basis which not only influences focus of perception and promotes development of a differentiation of the perceived signs, but also directly influences understanding of observed objects and processes.
- the Fourth feature of observation is defined by the fact that the content of activity assumes interaction of people. And it means that it is necessary to observe, as a rule, not isolated person, and people who are in communication, in relationship with each other. The empathy is characterized by ability to reflection of an inner world of other person. Such reflection promotes understanding of thoughts and feelings of another, and also causes emotional participation. Emergence of empathy assumes the developed observation and its communication with thinking and feelings. Ability to become on the point of view of other person, to imitate his states, to understand what is not stated aloud, to be identified with its emotional state, to anticipate development of behavior and mental states - here that concrete content of empathy which is shown in processes of interaction between people. Observation is promoted here by a certain system of the personality at which such emotional properties as an impressionability, emotional responsiveness are developed.
Thus, observation, is connected with features of the subject and object of supervision. Its development promotes improvement of ability not only to see and feel another, but also to expect his behavior.