the Subject of our publication will be such “children`s“ infectious disease as measles. Why we wrote the word “children`s“ in quotes? Because recently the age of those who have measles considerably changed. If earlier this disease it was mainly observed at preschool children, then presently - mostly at school students and young people aged from 15 till 18 years. How to distinguish whether it is valid at your child measles what can be made for treatment of the house and how to warn against infection all family?Three conditions of distribution of measles Measles were known to
for several centuries B.C. Its activator is the virus. Three conditions are necessary for distribution of a disease, namely: sick measles (infection source), certain mechanism of transfer of a virus and organism, susceptible to a disease. The ill person is infectious not only when he already has symptoms of a disease, but also some days before its beginning. A special role in distribution of this infection is played by patients with atypical forms of measles, that is when the clinic of an illness is poorly expressed or it cannot be distinguished as she reminds other diseases more. Then such patients are not isolated in due time. In the last two days before emergence of any clinical symptoms of an illness, during the catarrhal period and the period of rash (the measles periods are more detailed we will consider below), sick measles allocates a virus. It gets to environment with small droplets of slime during cough or just conversation. It is worth noticing that the virus quickly and far extends air streams, especially through exhaust mines at drafts, moving from first floors of the room to top or from one its end to another. Duration of allocation of a virus from the patient depends on presence of complications at it. If the course of a disease complicated, then is considered that the virus can be allocated for about six days longer. All this is considered by doctors, establishing quarantine imposing terms. A susceptibility to a virus of measles it is almost total. It means that probability to ache with measles as a result of contact with the patient - 100%. Seldom children to three-months age are ill. They have congenital immunity from mother (provided that women had measles earlier or passed vaccination) which is lost subsequently.
As the disease develops?
In the development measles have several periods. The first - incubatory - lasts from 9 to 17 days, and in cases of use of immunoglobulin for the purpose of the prevention of an illness at children who contacted to the patient, can proceed till 21 days. The incubatory period - a period from infection during contact before emergence of the first symptoms of an illness.
Second - catarrhal - from 3 to 7 days last. Emergence of high temperature of a body in the first day attracts attention. On
Sometimes the photophobia happens so strong that eyelids of the patient are convulsively closed. Until the end of the catarrhal period of allocation from a nose and eye cracks gain purulent character. All these symptoms remind sharp respiratory viral infections. But increase of catarrhal manifestations will be feature of measles in these cases, cough will become frequent, painful. The main distinctive features which allow to distinguish measles even before developing of rash on skin is emergence at the end of the catarrhal period on a mucous membrane of cheeks, lips, gums of rashes which remind semolina, and small one-time - red spots on a soft and hard palate.
When this symptom of an illness (on appears
Then in development of an illness there comes the pigmentation period. Rashes begin to darken, getting a brown shade. Pigmentation happens in the same order, as well as rash developed (from the head to legs), keeps from one to one and a half weeks. Further small hulling which reminds seedings can be observed. Than the bigger quantity of rashes, subjects they is brighter, therefore, the high probability of hulling. During this period temperature is normalized, the catarrhal phenomena gradually disappear.
Feature of rash (color, a form, emergence time, the subsequent pigmentation and hulling), existence of Qatar of the top airways, conjunctivitis and a sklerit, specific changes in a mouth allow to distinguish measles during these periods and to distinguish it from other diseases which are followed by rash too (a rubella, scarlet fever, chicken pox, etc.) .
the Last stage during measles is the period of recovery which feature consists in weakening of protective forces of an organism. Therefore, at this time it is necessary to be careful of any infectious diseases. Repeatedly it is impossible to ache with measles as all who had gain resistant immunity.If vaccination is done to
in due time
At not imparted children to whom after contact with the patient with measles entered immunoglobulin, the disease can also arise, but it has much easier current. Temperature is low, manifestations are expressed poorly, rashes in a small amount. The inoculation a clumsy vaccine will cause resistant immunity. And, contacting to the patient with measles, the child will not get sick. Therefore, keep in mind that the kid needs to do vaccination in due time!Measles can lead
does not need to be forgotten about complications of measles which can be more terrible, than a disease. They are divided on virus and bacterial. Virus complications are caused actually by a measles virus. Carry stenoziruyushchy laryngotracheitis (croup), pneumonia, meningitis, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis to them. The last are the most terrible. Why? Because in this situation the course of a disease extremely heavy, often lethal, and children who recovered remain disabled people. In case of virus complications, the term of allocation of a virus of measles from the patient lasts and proceeds about ten days since the beginning of rashes. It defines need of longer isolation of such children.
Bacterial complications of measles most often pneumonia, otitises, stomatitises, enterokolita, pyelonephritises happen that needs also to be considered in treatment of such children.
At the smallest measles proceed
in own way
Would be desirable to pay attention to features of a course of measles at children of the first year of life. At them is in the catarrhal period of display of conjunctivitis, cold, cough are expressed more weakly. Sometimes this stage of a disease in general is absent, and the illness begins with rashes. In most cases there is no specific rash on mucous a mouth. The period of rashes is reduced and 2 days last. Though the poocherednost of rashes - rash smaller remains, more pale and its quantity is less, in comparison with the senior children. Quite often there is intestines dysfunction - a frequent chair of a liquid consistence, sometimes with slime impurity. The period of pigmentation is also shortened. Despite of it, the course of measles at babies heavier. These children have bacterial complications, such as pneumonia, otitis more often. Further often the intestinal dysbiosis develops. Emergence of complications causes the highest measles mortality at children of this age. It once again proves that a disease it is better to warn, than then to treat.
How to treat a disease in house conditions
In hospital (infectious office) surely hospitalize children of the first year of life, children sick with measles with heavy degree of measles, complications, and also is more rare than those who live in orphanages, boarding schools - hostels. If at you the child got sick - call the district doctor. He has to define where it is necessary to treat your child (at home or in a hospital), will appoint the corresponding treatment and preventive actions for the prevention of the subsequent distribution of measles.
of Specific means which would affect a measles virus does not exist. Therefore treatment consists in the strengthened leaving for simplification of a course of a disease. The patient is isolated to the certain, well aired room. At an uncomplicated current - isolation term - is not less than four days from emergence of the first rash. During
the Great value is attached to care of skin and mucous membranes. Carry out hygienic bathtubs with use of chemical solution of potassium permanganate, eyes wash out warm boiled water, tea tea leaves, camomile broth. Each eye is processed a separate wadded tampon from an external corner of an eye to internal. This procedure it is necessary to repeat
apply paracetamol To decrease in body temperature. Febrifugal preparations give to children at a temperature of 38,5 degrees and above. Widely appoint ascorbic acid in a daily dose
Prevention of measles
Preventive actions in the center of measles include isolation of the child (till fifth day from the moment of emergence of rashes, and in cases of complications - till 10 days that is caused by long allocation of a virus). Rooms after isolation well air if there is opportunity - carry out quartz treatment. Impose quarantine on children who contacted to the patient with measles and were not imparted and had no measles. After one-time contact the children`s collective is allowed to visit the first seven days. Then, till 17 in the afternoon after contact inclusive (and for children who for the purpose of prevention received immunoglobulin - till 21 days), such children are isolated. In the infection center daily perform routine inspection and thermometry of kids which were in contact with the one who got sick. All found patients are urgently isolated.
Specific prevention in the center of an infection is carried out by human immunoglobulin. It is entered to children from 3 to 12 months, and also seniors who were not imparted in connection with contraindications. Immunoglobulin needs to be entered in the first three days after contact. After its introduction will not provide the prevention of measles, but can make its current easier. Therefore for the prevention of a disease and providing a favorable epidemiological situation of the most effective there will be an inoculation a clumsy vaccine.
Vaccination is carried out at the age of 12 months, in the absence of contraindications, together with rubella and parotitis inoculation (mumps) in special offices of preventive inoculations in children`s policlinics. The repeated inoculation (revaccination) is carried out aged by 6 or 11 years (if at six-year age of an inoculation it was not carried out). In recent years make the combined vaccines against measles, a rubella and parotitis at once that allows to do one instead of three intramuscular injections, and it will be less painful for your child.
I Hope that this publication not only acquainted you with such important disease as measles, but also further will help to suspect in due time it, to hold appropriate preventive events and care of the child sick with measles in house conditions, and especially - convinced of interests of carrying out preventive inoculations against measles. You remember: a disease it is simpler to warn, than to treat.
the Pan-American Organization of health care (Pan American Health Organization) in 1994 entered the program urged to destroy measles in America. It included vaccination and campaigns for control over an epidemic situation. According to the Center of control and prevention of diseases of the USA (US Center for Disease Control and Prevention), for the last 8 years quantity of cases of measles in North and South America decreased by 99,3%, and in 2000 only 1754 cases of measles, in comparison with 250000 in 1990 were registered. To all appearances in the world soon will become one deadly infection less.