Rus Articles Journal

Grain: ``educational program`` for parents of

a Specific place in food of children of early age is held by the products made on the basis of cereals. First of all it is, of course, grain from which cook porridges, baked puddings and other dishes. What grain is useful to kids and what it is better to refuse?

First course on the basis of grain which gets on a children`s table is porridge. According to recommendations of World Health Organization, porridge enter into the menu of kids after introduction of a vegetable feeding up. Let`s remind that the vegetable feeding up is recommended to be entered after 6 months, so porridges - in 6,5 - 7 months. However in some situations perhaps earlier introduction of porridges. It concerns those children who have a deficiency of body weight or tendency to ease of a chair (at the same time vegetable dishes can aggravate a situation).

If for children 1 years of porridge are younger than

prepare from krupyany flour (it is received when crushing grains) or offer the baby the instantny porridges which are not demanding cooking, then after 1 year gradually pass to liquid porridges on the basis of whole grain. Closer by 2 years when the child has enough teeth and his chewing skills were already fixed, it is possible to offer the baby krupyany baked pudding and muesli.

can be prepared for

of Kashi for children on water, on whole milk, on children`s dairy mix and on breast milk. As the first feeding up it is better to use nonmilk instantny porridges for baby food, having parted them with water, breast milk or dairy mix which the kid well transfers. If the baby has no allergic diseases and he well transferred introduction to a diet of cereals, in 2 - 4 weeks it is possible to offer it milk porridge.

For baby food are used also by the porridges made independently. In house conditions the first porridge is recommended to be cooked on half milk (i.e. milk is dissolved with water in the ratio 1:1). At good tolerance and lack of allergic reactions in 2 - 3 weeks it is possible to prepare for the child of porridge on whole milk. It should be noted that in recent years the tendency not to include whole cow`s milk in a diet of children was outlined 1 years in connection with a wide circulation of an allergy to protein of this milk are younger. Therefore if your child has hereditary predisposition to an allergy and also if at him these or those allergic manifestations already took place, it is better to cook for it porridges on water, adding breast milk or the adapted mix corresponding to age at the end.

What grain happens?

All types of grain products are a good source of carbohydrates which content can reach 60 - 70%. At the same time porridges contain a small amount of protein (7 - 13%) and fat (0,7 - 7%).

Though the content of the main nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) in different types of grain approximately identical, different types of grain and flour can significantly differ on the level of contents in them of vitamins and mineral salts. Also grain differs on the content of food fibers which, in turn, exert impact on growth of useful microflora in intestines, promotes a regular chair and removal of toxic products from an organism.

Buckwheat. Is a valuable source of vitamins of group B, magnesium and iron. Contains in buckwheat of iron in 6 - 7 times more, than in rice or, for example, a manna. Besides, it is rich with zinc and copper. Contains a large amount of vegetable cellulose (food fibers). Cellulose is necessary for normal functioning zheludochno - an intestinal path. It stimulates motility of intestines, increases volume and reduces density of kalovy masses, promoting prevention of locks; positively influences growth of useful intestinal microflora. Being a sorbent, cellulose promotes removal from an organism of harmful substances. Besides, the high content of food fibers in buckwheat provides timely emergence of feeling of saturation that the overeating and, as a result, obesity warns.

Grits are “champion“ on the content of calcium and phosphorus.

of Fig. Wins first place on the content of carbohydrates (generally starch which is very well acquired by the child`s organism). However the content of useful food fibers in rice grain is lower, than, for example, in buckwheat, oat or millet.

Corn grits. This grain is rich with starch and iron, vitamins of group B, E, A, PP, but the content of calcium and phosphorus in it is not too high. Distinctive feature of porridge from corn is its ability to slow down processes of fermentation in intestines, reducing a meteorizm (swelling) and gripes. Porridge from corn grits usually demands long cooking therefore earlier it was seldom used in food of small children. However modern soluble corn porridges do not demand long preparation and are easily acquired.

Grits. rather large amount of vegetable protein Contains. B1, B2, necessary for normal work of nervous system is vitamin-rich. Grits are “champion“ on the content of calcium and phosphorus, necessary for the growing organism for formation of a bone tissue and teeth. In its structure there is a lot of magnesium and iron. Grits contain the greatest number of vegetable (useful) fats and are rich with cellulose.

Millet. This grain is received from millet grains. Millet is rich with protein and cellulose, and also vitamins of group B.

Pearl-barley and yachnevy grain. they are received from shredded barley. If barley grits suit children of 1,5 - 2 more (its extent of crushing higher), then pearl-barley porridge is cooked for kids 3 years are more senior. Pearl barley is integral yachnevy the grains purified and polished, barley grits are not exposed to polishing therefore cellulose contains in it more. On the content of useful substances this grain is close to millet.

Semolina. it is made from wheat grains after they are cleared of the top layers (bran). (From wheat make whaet groats, semolina and flour - they differ with grinding degree: at whaet groats - the most rough, at flour - the smallest). Cream of wheat has high caloric content and is well acquired by a children`s organism. For this reason the semolina long time was included into the list of the main products for baby food in our country. However now do not recommend to offer semolina dishes to children till 1 year. At more advanced age it is desirable to use a semolina in limited quantity. Such recommendations are connected with the fact that semolina contains a large amount of vegetable protein of gluten that defines its high-allergenic properties.

What is a tseliakiya?
Tseliakiya is a chronic hereditary disease at which the use in food of the grain products containing gluten leads to inflammatory process in a mucous membrane of intestines, to decrease in absorption of nutrients, a metabolic disorder, a gipovitaminoz (the state which is characterized by deficiency in an organism of these or those vitamins). The first symptoms of a disease appear more often at infantile age after the beginning of introduction to a diet of the kid of porridges and are characterized by weight reduction, increase in the sizes of a stomach, emergence of a liquid plentiful foamy chair. Disease symptoms quickly enough pass at an exception of a diet of the products containing gluten. The final diagnosis is established only after carrying out a biopsy of a mucous membrane of a lean gut. A basis of treatment of this disease is the diet excluding the products rich with gluten.

Semolina contains phytin in a large number - complex organic substance which connects calcium in intestines, reducing its assimilation by the child`s organism. Cream of wheat contains much less useful mineral substances, than, for example, buckwheat and oat. Prevalence of this porridge over others in a diet can lead to excess weight in connection with its high caloric content. Semolina is poor in vegetable fibers that, on the one hand, is minus. But on the other hand, thanks to this property cream of wheat is irreplaceable in food of the children who underwent an operation on abdominal organs (in the postoperative period) when appoint medical, chemically and physically sparing food (and klt - a chatka as it was told above, irritates a mucous membrane of intestines and stimulates motility zheludochno - an intestinal path).

What grain to choose
by

?

needs to choose by

For food of children grain, considering not only age of the kid, but also a state of his health.

Acquaintance to grain products is always begun with the grain which is not containing vegetable protein gluten. Treat bezglyutenovy grain buckwheat, rice and corn. Porridges on the basis of this grain possess low allergenicity, high nutritional value, good comprehensibility. After full accustoming, and also in the absence of signs of intolerance and an allergy the diet of the kid is expanded and suggest to taste other porridges, first of all - oat. At good tolerance of the listed types of grain usually at the age of about 2 years gradually enter millet, pearl-barley, yachnevy grain. by

At deviations in a state of health it is better for p to choose grain for a children`s table according to recommendations of the pediatrician who observes your child. Let`s list some diseases at which it is necessary to observe restrictions at the choice of cereal products.

Allergic reaction on protein gluten occurs at children of early age quite often now. It is connected, on the one hand, with the increased permeability mucous zheludochno - an intestinal path at children at this age, and on the other hand - with non-compliance with rules of feeding and introduction of feedings up (for example, at early introduction to the menu of the baby of glyutensoderzhashchy grain - semolina, oat, etc.) . The allergy to gluten is a kind of food allergy and is shown, first of all, by rashes on skin and zheludochno - intestinal frustration. In treatment the diet excluding glyutensoderzhashchy products is of great importance. From grain use generally buckwheat and rice. As the child can have an allergy not only to gluten, but also to other components of food, it is better to follow the individual diet made by the doctor.

What is muesli?
This product represents the flattened-out grains of cereal cultures with addition of pieces of fruit, nuts, honey, cocoa etc. There are muesli which are specially intended for baby food. Upon purchase of muesli it is necessary to consider age of the child. Muesli with pieces of fruit will suit kids of 1,5 - 2. Muesli with honey can offer children aged from 2 - 2. 5 years in the absence of allergic diseases. Muesli with nuts are recommended to kids 5 years are more senior (at earlier age there is a danger that the child will not be able to chew a nut and will choke). For baby food it is better to use muesli without addition of sugar, lemon acid, and also artificial dyes and preservatives.

Rickets - the disease of a fast-growing organism caused mainly by deficiency of vitamin D (and also other substances), leading calcium to violation - a phosphoric exchange and to defeat of bone and nervous systems. Except drug treatment food of the child which has to be balanced and various is of great importance. At the same time grain dishes have to be present at a diet of the kid not more often than once a day. Semolina as it is poor in vitamins and minerals is excluded, but also, reduces absorption of calcium from the child`s intestines.

Obesity - the disease which is shown an excess zhirootlozheniye. Treatment surely includes a dietotherapy. It should be noted that at children`s age extreme low-calorie diets or diets with an exception of any groups of products are inadmissible (for example, the products rich with carbohydrates or fats). Grain surely joins in a daily diet (but is not more often than once a day and in the quantity corresponding to age of the child). The preference should be given to oat, buckwheat grain as they contain the maximum quantity of mineral substances and vitamins, and also are rich with food fibers. From - for the high content of starch it is desirable to limit the use of rice and semolina porridges.

Diarrhea (a liquid chair) can be a symptom of the most various diseases. Medical foods mean an exception of the products irritating, stimulating intestines. Therefore choose grain with the minimum content of cellulose and fibers, with the high power value and good comprehensibility. Rice and semolina grain possesses such qualities, for example.

the Lock - the intestines dysfunction which is followed by increase in periods between acts of a defekation in comparison with norm. Lack of a chair of more than a day is considered a true lock. The independent depletion of intestines which is followed by a strong natuzhivaniye and concern of the child is also considered as pathology. The reasons of untimely depletion of intestines are very different, but most often for elimination of a lock it is enough to adjust food of the kid. By drawing up the day menu of the child inclined to a chair delay, it is better to give preference to porridges from buckwheat or oat grain as they contain the maximum quantity of the food fibers promoting prevention of locks. Rice and semolina it is better not to use as they “fix“ a chair. It is necessary to remember that porridges should be used not more often than once a day.

Recipes

Porridge dairy

of the Croup - 30 g, milk - 200 ml, water - 70 ml, butter - 5 g

to the Croup (buckwheat, rice, millet, oat) to touch, wash out, pour into the boiling water and to cook almost to readiness (about 15 minutes). Then to pour in hot milk and to continue to cook porridge to a full razvarivaniye of grain within 5 - 7 minutes. At the end of cooking to add a salt pinch.

Rice porridge with apples

Rice grain - 2 tablespoons, apple - 100 g, water - 1/2 glass, sugar - 1 h a spoon.

Rice to touch

, to wash out carefully. To cut apple on four parts, having removed at the same time a core and a thin skin. To pour rice into the boiling water and to cook within 20 minutes. To add apple and to continue to cook to readiness about 10 more minutes. To pour sugar. It is good to mix.

of Trickled pastries from cottage cheese and the oat-flakes oat flakes

For 4 portions: cottage cheese - 200 g, flour - 60 g, oat flakes “oat-flakes“ - 40 g, 1 egg, sour cream - 20 g, sugar - 20 g, butter - 12 g

Cottage cheese to wipe

through a sieve, to mix with egg, sugar, flour and oat flakes. To roll dough in the form of a plait, to roll in in flour, to cut on pieces. To cook, having lowered in the boiling water, 5 - 6 minutes. To give with sour cream.

Millet cereal with apples and carrots

Millet grain - 100 g, water - 200 ml, apple - 150 g, carrots - 30 g, vegetable oil - 20 g, honey (at desire) - 20 g, salt to taste.

to the Croup to wash out, pour into the boiling added some salt water and to cook on weak fire within 25 - 30 minutes. To grate apple and carrots on a large grater. To add apples, carrots, honey, vegetable oil to porridge. To mix everything.

Apple - pumpkin porridge

Pumpkin - 150 g, 1 apple, grain (buckwheat, rice, millet) - 30 g, milk - 250 ml, sugar - 1 h a spoon.

Pumpkin and apple to clear, cut on cubes and to bake in an oven within 15 - 20 minutes at a temperature of 200 ° With, having added 1 tablespoon of water on a frying pan or a baking sheet. To a croup to touch, wash out, pour into the boiling milk and to cook to readiness within 20 minutes. To wipe pumpkin and apple through a sieve or to crush in the blender, having added sugar. To enter apple - pumpkin puree into porridge, to mix. At desire to add 5 g of butter.

the Pudding from semolina

Milk - 250 g, semolina - 30 g, water - 50 g, butter - 20 g, 1 egg, sugar and salt - to taste.

Milk with water to boil, add salt and sugar; stirring slowly, to pour grain. To cook at continuous stirring within 15 minutes. To remove porridge from a plate, to add 10 g of butter, to cool to room temperature. Egg to shake up and mix with cream of wheat. To grease a form with butter and to lay out in it weight for a pudding. To bake in an oven at a temperature of 200 ° With within 10 - 15 minutes. To take out a ready pudding from a form, to cool to room temperature, to cut on portion pieces. To give with berries or jam.