Rus Articles Journal

Artificial feeding in questions and answers of

Artificial feeding should be considered as attack to a metabolism because initially the organism of the child is physiologically adjusted to digestion only of maternal milk. In this regard children - “bottle-fed babies“ have to be under special supervision of pediatricians. The illness (the child or mother) which is not allowing to nurse is the reason of the transfer of the child to mix: somatic or infectious diseases, serious violations of a metabolism, a gipogalaktiya (the lowered milk secretion by chest glands owing to hormonal violations), drug intake, incompatible with GV. But in many cases of the reason of the translation on WILLOWS the following: insufficient knowledge (belief in advertizing, outdated data on breastfeeding) and psychological unpreparedness: fatigue, lack of support from relatives, uncertainty in, breastfeeding rejection.

If to women`s milk already since the birth the habit physiological exists, then efforts from the child are necessary for accustoming to dairy mixes. At the beginning (after transfer to mix) jumps of weight (a big increase), locks are possible. It is necessary to watch a condition of the kid carefully: he endures the real stress and tries to adapt to a new way of life. Be especially attentive to the child during this period, pay it more attention, provide tactile contact not to deprive of its feeling of rest and trust.

That it is necessary to buy

Use small bottles with a wide neck, a tire-tread cap and separate nipples with small holes. You will need 4 - 6 small bottles (volume 125 × 250 ml), 4 - 6 spare pacifiers for small bottles, a sterilizer, the brush for washing, a thermos for storage. Now there were convenient thermal containers, in them 1 - 2 small bottles are located. One packing of dry mix (400 - 450) usually is enough for preparation 3 - 4 l of baby food. In the first half a year the kid needs (approximately) 45 packings of mix.

With what to begin


Artificial mix is appointed by the doctor, and only the doctor. Not the girlfriend, not advertizing and even maternal intuition not in the help. The pediatrician has to proceed from indicators of weight and features of development of the child, circumstances of pregnancy and childbirth, tendency to an allergy. Also he is obliged to reason the reasons of the transfer to mix, without being guided by outdated methods. If you doubt a doctor`s advice - visit other expert. The choice of food since the birth are the vital question!

How to begin?

Mix is entered by

gradually to check reaction of an organism. In the first days once give 10 ml of mix, in the second - three times on 10 ml, for the third day double a dose, thus, in a week bring norm of mix to daily. In special cases under control of the doctor mix is entered quicker.

What mix is better than


That which was pleasant to the child. It means that he eats with pleasure, does not cry when feeding and does not turn away, at it vomiting did not become frequent, there are no rashes on skin and long locks (small locks right after input of mix are considered as norm). Give preference to mixes in which serumal proteins, but not casein prevail (casein mixes:“ Similak“, “Nestozhen“ and others). Do not buy mix as a part of which there is a sucrose and starch.

Types of mixes

of Mix happen most adapted and partially adapted, now the second are applied more and more seldom, but to some children they suit for the specific reasons, sometimes and not clear to science. In total - it is necessary to try to use the high-adapted mixes (with a mark “from zero“ or “since the birth“), and cheaper “partial“: having saved on mix, you do not struggle with capitalist usurpers, and save on health of the child literally. Also mixes happen fresh and sour-milk. In sour-milk squirrels is in a stvorozhenny state, and they leave from a stomach more slowly, than fresh milk. The lactic acid collecting at a stvorazhivaniye promotes increase of sekretorny activity zheludochno - an intestinal path. Therefore sour mixes are digested easier. The volume of acidified milk formula in a diet should not exceed 50% of the total amount of dairy mix, anyway it irritates mucous a stomach. Still mixes are divided on dry and liquid, dry are longer stored and cost cheaper, and liquid it is not necessary to prepare specially.

And that inside?

(source: methodical recommendations of scientific research institute of food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science of the principles and methods of feeding of children of the first year of life)

Approach (adaptation) of composition of dairy mixes to composition of women`s milk is carried out by

on all components - proteinaceous, fatty, carbohydrate, vitamin and mineral. Adaptation of a proteinaceous component consists, first of all, in decrease in the general level of protein (from 2,8 g / 100 ml in cow`s milk to 1,5 - 1,8 / 100 ml in ready mix) that to a large extent corresponds to protein level in women`s milk (0,8 - 1,2 / 100 ml). Decrease in protein content in substitutes of women`s milk allows to eliminate adverse influence of excess of protein on a nitrogenous and mineral exchange of the baby, function of a digestive tract and unripe kidneys. Other direction of adaptation is introduction to substitutes of women`s milk of proteins of whey which, unlike the casein prevailing in cow`s milk form much more gentle and easier usvoyaemy clot in the child`s stomach, and also provide bigger approach of amino-acid composition of mix to amino-acid composition of women`s milk.

the Majority of the adapted substitutes of women`s milk contain also taurine - sulfur-containing free (i.e. not being a part of proteins) the amino acid necessary for creation of a neuroretina and a brain of babies, absorptions of fats (formation of pair bilious acids), etc. This amino acid for children of the first weeks and months of life, especially premature, is among irreplaceable.

Adaptation of a fatty component includes partial or full replacement of milk fat by mix of natural vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, soy, coconut, palm, etc.) that allows to increase significantly contents in a product of irreplaceable polynonsaturated fatty acids of families an omega - 6 (linoleic, arakhidonovy acids) and an omega - Z (linolenovy to - that, etc.) which level in cow`s milk is small. For improvement of digestion of fat enter small amounts of natural emulsifiers into dairy mix (lecithin, mono - and diglycerides) which promote the best emulsification and absorption of fats in an intestines gleam, and also the carnitine improving oxidation of fatty acids in cages of bodies and tissues of the baby.

for the purpose of adaptation of a carbohydrate component of dairy mix add lactose which level in cow`s milk is much lower, than in female to it. Quite often lactose is combined with low-molecular polymer of glucose - a dextrin - a maltose. Instead of a dextrin - maltoses can be mixed in the containing its malt extracts or different types of treacle, and also glucosic syrup. At last, modern substitutes of women`s milk contain all vitamins, mineral salts and minerals necessary for the child (including iron, zinc, copper, iodine, etc.) in the adequate and balanced quantities.

What mixes are suitable

for artificial feeding since the birth

Only the adapted dairy mixes with the instruction “1 step“ or “from the birth“: “NAN“ (Switzerland), “Nutrilon“ (Holland), “Pre - HIPP“, “HIPP 1“ (Austria), “Enfamil 1“ (USA), “Humana 1“ (Germany) and others. After 5 - 6 months the “subsequent“ mixes are entered. Protein content and power value in them are higher as also needs of the kid of the second half of the year of life increased. It:“ Nutrilon 2“ (Holland), “Frisomel“ (Holland), “Gallia 2“ (France), “NAN with bifidobacteria of 6 months“ (Holland). Often names contain figure “2“ - designation of the second half of the year of life.

What is medical mixes

These mixes are intended for special categories of children: premature, having an allergy, small weight, food intolerance, vomiting. They are appointed the pediatrician, he determines the necessary volume of medical mix.

When needs to replace mix?

How to prepare mix

Prepare for

mix strictly according to the instruction on packing. For cultivation it is better to use the special water (purified by the good filter or bottled) as usual possesses the raised mineralization and loads kidneys, boiled water is also heavy for kidneys also. Before feeding mix needs to be warmed up, having placed a small bottle in a bath with warm water or in a special heater. During feeding gradually incline a small bottle that its neck was filled. Pour out the remains of mix, and then wash up a small bottle and a pacifier.

How many to hang up in grams?

body weight body weight
Age food Volume in days
of 10 days - 2 months 1/5
of 2 - 4 months 1/6
of 4 - 6 months 1/7
of 6 - 9 months 1/8

the Approximate number of feedings during the day:

the first week of life - 7 - 10;

1 week - 2 months - 7 - 8;

2 - 4 months - 6 - 7;

of 4 - 9 months - 5 - 6;

of 9 - 12 months - 4 - 5. whether

Can store the divorced mix?

Usually mix cannot be stored, as well as repeatedly to warm. But on some packings period of storage of the divorced mix (in the refrigerator) is specified till six o`clock - read the instruction.

How to store mix in packing

not begun packing can be stored in a case. If it is opened, mix has to be stored in the refrigerator. Some substitutes can be stored also at the room temperature within 3 - 4 weeks. The relevant information is specified on packing.


Free artificial feeding

Still conduct disputes whether it is possible to feed the bottle-fed baby on demand. Earlier about it could not be and speeches, quality of mixes did not allow. The need for food at the child is uneven (from here and senselessness of control weighings, their dynamics has to be traced in 2 - 3 weeks, but not for 1 - 2 time in any way). At artificial feeding practice partially free feeding - a way at which the quantity of food is given at the request of the child, but in certain limits. It allows to define more correctly optimum need of the kid for food. If the child does not eat the quantity of food which is completely offered him, it is not necessary to finish feeding it violently. Taking into account specific features of the child the number of feedings can change. For example, if the child does not eat the offered volume during one feeding, he demands more frequent feeding in the smaller portions. Thus, the principle of “free“ feeding, i.e. the maximum accounting of desires of the child has to be used also at artificial feeding.

Contact with mother at artificial feeding

the Child on artificial feeding needs tactile contact with mother much more, than the baby. His emotional perception of the world, a state of health, feeling of internal comfort depends on this contact - all pleasure of life depends on that, how often mother presses it to herself.

of the Mistake at artificial feeding

Why about one year needs to feed with mix, but not whole milk or kefir?

the Main food for the kid about one year is not just some white nourishing water. The adapted mix is not replaced with whole cow`s or goat milk and the more so it is not replaced with kefir. Similar replacements result in deficiency of the vitamins and minerals necessary for health. Still there is a myth about extraordinary advantage of a dokorm goat milk.“ The guide to healthy food of babies and children of early age for average medical personnel“ (The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 2003) recommends to enter into a diet whole goat milk only at the age of 9 - 12 months, and in all recommendations of World Health Organization it is recommended to give to children goat milk not earlier than 12 - monthly age. The special attention needs to be paid to folic acid which content is insignificant in goat milk.

It is necessary for

for blood formation and if the child is raised by goat milk, then it develops foliyevodefitsitny anemia which course is much heavier, than iron deficiency anemia. Cow`s milk on the structure is adapted under needs of a calf, any a treensky milk unambiguously does not suit the city kid about one year because of very heavy structure, and the advantage of the store milk which passed sterilization and enriched with several artificial vitamins at all is doubtful. All these products can be applied to acquaintance as a feeding up, but not as replacement of the main food on which full development and a good health depends. Kefir is fermented milk product for a feeding up at all, also do not replace with it mix not to overload a kidney and not to spoil gentle mucous a stomach. Without being afraid to repeat repeatedly, all - I will remind that many years ago quality of dairy mixes was very low therefore children were finished feeding whole milk and kefir, now in it there is no need. Shouts “and nobody died from it“ are extremely inappropriate against sad statistics about the complications caused by an early dokorm kefir or cow`s milk. whether

needs to dopaivat bottle-fed babies?

Modern physicians consider that when feeding the child the high-adapted mix to dopaivat water there is no need. There are outdated opinions that it is necessary to dopaivat bottle-fed babies because mix - a product heavy, nourishing. It is applicable to the old mixes which were not differing in high quality. Or to not adapted mixes, still which - where used - in fact, they represent the cow`s milk divorced broth from krupyany flour with addition of sugar syrup. Now compositions of mixes on quality are more advanced. After three months the child on WILLOWS can offer clear water at will - if does not drink, so does not want. Also it is recommended to watch a chair: if long locks and dryness of skin, perhaps are characteristic, the additional dopaivaniye is required. If a chair at the bottle-fed baby normal (gruel) - the dopaivaniye is not necessary.

Why artificial mix will never replace with

breast milk

Breast milk is the live product which is ideally changing under the specific child. His squirrels are easily digested and soaked up - and cannot cause allergic reaction as protein in mix. Breast milk contains a huge amount of substances which will never be reproduced in mixes (hormones, enzymes, immunoglobulins, and others), without speaking about phenomenal fine tuning under needs of the child. Now the science very progressed in researches about value of breastfeeding in the child`s life therefore “substitute of breast milk“ is offered to forbid expression, and advertizing of mixes was already forbidden. Some doctors still attribute to breast milk of property cow, from here councils to limit feeding time, to arrange breaks not less than two hours (“that milk managed to be digested“), not to feed during infectious diseases (as would cancel cow`s milk), to boil breast milk... There was even a statement that the milkwoman at children arises from frequent feeding by a breast. The doctor too the person, and he too can hold the principles (but not knowledge), a task of any mother - not to shift all responsibility for feeding of the child to the doctor. Presently it is easy to obtain the necessary information from the Internet, from the consultant for breastfeeding - or just to find more qualified pediatrician.

As for disputes on deprivation of children - bottle-fed babies a certain metaphysical contact “mother - the child“, in this respect is the fair remark: in total - the love of children is measured not by type of food, but readiness to understand and feel the child. And any mother is allocated with readiness of this irrespective of the circumstances preventing to nurse only.