Language of an obstacle
Problems with reading are had to 60% of modern first graders. At 5 - 8% of children these difficulties with time develop into permanent violations. If to 3 - 4 - mu to a class the child still spells, rearranges in places or swallows of letters and their combinations, loses a line or comes back to the read word, then make it the diagnosis “dyslexia“. Modern physicians, psychologists, teachers (and the related term “dysgraphia“) treat the concept “dyslexia“ as complex violation of reading (and letters), the events due to various reasons of external and internal character.
the Most frequent external reasons:
- socially - economic;
- psychological (stresses at school, an intensification of educational process, inadequacy of the training techniques, the overestimated requirements of the teacher).
- genetic predisposition (it is known that difficulties with reading are descended);
- of violation, arisen owing to pathology of pregnancy, difficult childbirth;
- brain dysfunction (not formation of a cerebral cortex, regulatory structures);
- age not formation (arrest of development of informative functions).
the Diagnosis “dyslexia“ the doctor - the speech pathologist or the neuropsychiatrist has no right to put earlier, than the child will go in 3 - 4 - y a class. To this age it is possible to speak only about existence of difficulties in training in reading and the letter. But if the first grader at the abc-book sits down in the first half a year of study only from - under sticks, then parents should not linger.
Having bethought in time, it is possible to cope with this problem quite successfully and for rather short term. The later to begin to liquidate these difficulties, the it is longer necessary to work. To teach to read the started dyslexic though it is difficult, but it is possible. And here to make so that he derived pleasure from communication with the book - alas, is almost unreal.the Correction of mistakes
Earlier scientists connected by
development of difficulties in training in reading only with violation of speech development. Today it is known: it is much more reasons. Except already mentioned, it can be problems visual and visually - spatial perception, violation motor and visually - motor koordination, not formation of working memory and attention, violation of an articulation, not formation of acoustical perception. If one of these “buttons“ at the child sinks down, there are problems with training in general. to Reveal
that happens to the child, it is hard for parents therefore it is the best of all to address logopedists, speech pathologists, neuropsychiatrists. In their professional arsenal there are special techniques which help to understand at first the reasons of development in the child of the difficulties called above and then and to correct these problems.
experts and certain secrets Own, many of which are absolutely artless. For example, for hyperactive children with violations of attention sometimes it is enough to put on the book page a strip with mobile “window“ in which the separate word is located. Then all attention of the child will concentrate on one this word, and he will not be distracted by others.Everything is good in its season parents are often guilty
Of emergence of “a development dyslexia“. Their vanity and to stremleniyenauchit the child to read from the cradle can play a dirty trick. Early training in reading when not all functions at the kid are for this purpose created, just and leads to such sad result.to learn to read
by 5 years only 20% of children are capable, the others can master the so-called guessing reading only. And it is also a direct way to a dyslexia.to Mothers and fathers should remember
that it is impossible to compare the child to other children, at each “fruit“ the term of maturing. The same concerns also early training at school: 30% of children “ripen“ for this purpose only by 8 years, and other 70% - not earlier, than by 6 - 7 years. To be able to read, it is not enough to know letters. This process is much more difficult. So you should not try to make of the bibliophile`s kid quicker. It is much more useful to develop functions which prepare it for the correct perception of the text. And when they will be created, the child will easily learn to read correctly.should Begin with
prevention of a dyslexia still from the cradle. With the kid he needs to talk, play, read more books and when it grows up, to provoke to dialogue and to the monological speech more often. It is also important to develop visually - spatial perception, memory, small motility of fingers.
But occupations with the child of 4,5 - 5,5 should not exceed 5 - 10 minutes, and it is necessary to spend them only in it time when both you, and at the kid have a good mood.
Serious danger to children of school age consists in vicious practice of high-speed reading which is imposed to pupils at many schools. These are still half-troubles if the teacher carries out an inspection on reading speed in the latent form, but, unfortunately, often this “execution“ looks as competition which results are strictly estimated, compared and discussed in a class. For the child it is the stress and very dangerous. And torment pupils absolutely in vain: when reading aloud quicker than 80 words a minute the human ear perceives only part of information therefore it is senseless to seize this skill.
Besides a dyslexia - not so much slow, how many inefficient reading. As showed the analysis of Unified State Examination, more than a half of graduates are not capable, having read the text, to allocate in it the main thought. And it means: in spite of the fact that our children poorly - poorly learned to put letters in syllables, and syllables - in words, really they did not seize ability to read.So if the elementary school teacher imposes on
to your child the overestimated requirements, exhausts it hroverkami on reading speed, suppresses emotionally, accusing of laziness or inability to study, at the same time does not want to understand the reasons of difficulties, then it demonstrates only that the teacher unqualified. Study at it to mozhetzakonchitsya for the child not only a dyslexia, but also heavy neurosis, stutter and psychosomatic diseases. And here already business of parents: whether to leave the son or the daughter to study at such “professional“ or to transfer to other class.
, fortunately, dyslexics ceased to be considered Today as people intelligently limited. Even moreover, some scientists call a dyslexia one of genius signs. They refer to very impressive list of the celebrities experiencing difficulties in the letter and reading as the proof of this version: Albert Einstein, Thomas Edison, Hans Christiaan Andersen, Walt Disney, Leonardo da Vinci, Peter I, Winston Churchill, Nikita Khrushchev, Quentin Tarantino, Ozzy Osbourne, Tom Cruise and 40% of millionaires (including famous John Rockefeller) - dyslexics.