Honey - smother delight of
That the tea spoon of honey turned out, two hundred bees have to work all day, collecting nectar from thousands of flowers. And to reserve kilogram, not the centesimal, but thousand bee army which should fly about millions of melliferous herbs will go to collecting nectar. Grandiose work on scales! But business is not limited only to one extraction of nectar - it needs to be turned into honey still. For this reason the bee family is also called independent factory: it provides a full production cycle - from processing of raw materials before preservation of a product. >
it would be unfair to em to Call the person the owner of bee “factory“ in relation to these insects. Bees - beings independent and independent, living under the laws. Therefore the person can count at best on a position of the managing director to whose duties development of strategy of a successful medosbor, care of enhancement of a bee family, construction of “multiroom“ houses - beehives and as the fee for hard work - receiving the share of honey belong.
From a hollow - in a new building
Bee nests for people were always a desired find. For the sake of sweet production collectors of honey had to clamber on trees, to get into crevices of rocks where bees suited themselves dwellings, to risk and suffer from stings. The most ancient testimony of addiction of the person to honey was found at the beginning of the 20th century in Spain, in vicinities of Valencia. There, on a wall of one of caves, the artist of the Stone Age cut drawing: the person in an environment of bees gives a hand to a nest with honey honeycombs. Approximately so - “on - wild“, on - bear, throughout the millennia in different corners of the globe collected honey. But unlike animals biped a sweet delicacy hunters were cunning on an invention: began to hollow out in trunks of trees of emptiness and thus allured wild bees.In Russia artificial hollows called
bortyam. When the mass deforestation which forced out bees from their native habitat bortnik began, rescuing trade, began to drag from the wood pieces of the tumbled-down hollow trees - packs - and to put them near the houses. In packs bee families were installed, but to collect the ripened honey, beekeepers had to expel bees and to destroy honeycombs. They were wrung out in barrels or put in big capacity, and the honey called by drift gradually flew down in it. In days of old honey in our country collected much. On volumes of trade turnovers he took the second place after bread, it was enough and for internal consumption, and for sending for the sea. The state patronized bortnik and strictly punished for the harm done to this profitable trade. In “the Russian Truth“ of sons of the grand duke Yaroslav the Wise it is told that for damage or ruin princely a board the penalty 3 hryvnias is established (on this money it was possible to buy a horse in those days), and damages of country were “assessed“ at 2 hryvnias. With foreigners honey and beeswax on an equal basis with bellows served as currency in trade of Kievan Rus`.
in the 17th century the whole villages “specialized“ in bortevy beekeeping. The invention which made revolution in beekeeping belongs to 1814 when Pyotr Prokopovich, the famous beekeeper - the innovator, the organizer of the Russia`s first school of beekeeping, presented a so-called board frame beehive. This folding design revealed to bee-keepers many secrets of a medodelaniye and bee life and it became simpler to take away excess of honey. Beehive Prokopovich was improved by American Lauren Langstrot: he made it multicase, compound. Such type is used to this day by beekeepers of the whole world. Its convenience that at a big medosbor the beehive can be built on sets of a framework. During big a bribe multicase beehives grow up as city new buildings.
One more invention of the 19th century facilitated life of beekeepers. In 1865 Austrian Frantisek Grushka thought up a medogonka - the device for pumping of the ripened honey by means of centrifugal force. Modern devices - high-speed, electric, take away honey not from one, and from several tens frames. Honeycombs remain whole, they can be returned in a beehive and again to let in work. Using such way of collecting, the bee-keeper has to unpack the cells corked with bees for a start. However, sometimes it is specially not done - to receive the comb honey, especially valuable, sterile. As that it is considered because the beehive is almost sterile. Against microbes and small parasites it is preserved by propolis - smoloobrazny substance with which bees “trim“ the dwelling from within.
Functions of bees
Honey “factory“ is the seasonal enterprise working on natural hours. In a blossoming season when days stand long, solar, work on it does not stop for a second. Division of labor at bees is organized excellently: special “staff“ of workers is responsible for each production phase.
Collecting honey raw materials - a duty of a bee - breadwinners. Biologists counted that for one flight it brings on average 30 - 40 milligrams of nectar, and in a day makes ten, and even dozen of departures, every time moving away from a beehive on several kilometers. The bee goes to flower flight with a speed of 60 km/h, she makes the return flight with nectar freight with a smaller speed - only 25 km/h.
Nectar for a bee - a liquid forage. It will get it a hobotok from the most slozhnoustroyenny flower. Slightly - slightly will swallow - it is necessary to be supported, - and the rest will bring in a beehive. Having returned from flight, they hand over production to bees - acceptance inspectors, and those at once undertake to process it: swallow nectar and let out on the extended hobotok, again swallow - both again let out, and so hundreds of times to remove surplus of water. After such processing of a bee place nectar droplets in cells of honeycombs both then for a long time and laboriously sort them from a cell in a cell: thanks to all these repeated movements future honey gradually gets denser and at the same time is saturated with bee enzymes, organic acids, mineral substances.
the microclimate of a beehive is watched by service of bees - ventilyatorshchitsa. They work wings hard, evaporating excess moisture from honey storages and maintaining the necessary temperature. When honey ripens (on it week on average leaves), bees cork six-sided cells of honeycombs with thin wax lids. These “quality marks“ - the main sign of a maturity of honey. Mature - means brought to a certain level of humidity which should not exceed 18 - 20%. With higher content of moisture after a while it will simply deteriorate, will sour. And here the qualitative product can only become candied. By the way, this normal property of any honey which is not influencing its value. The majority of grades usually remain liquid till late fall, and by winter get denser, become granular. Till winter the siropoobrazny state will be kept only by the most resistant: akatsiyevy honey, chestnut and some grades of mountain.
Since pre-Christian times in Russia celebrated bee holidays. One - in the spring, at the very beginning of a medosbor, another - in the fall when beehives with bees cleaned on wintering. With adoption of Christianity they remained. Spring began to mark out on April 30 - “on Zosima“, autumn - on October 10, in day Savvatiya - an apiary. And it is not casual: the Solovki Saints Zosima and Savvaty were “appointed“ by orthodox church patrons of the Russian bee-keepers. In old times in the first day of August celebrated Honey Saviour. On new calendar style it falls on August 14. This day Orthodox Christians go to church to consecrate honey of new collecting, gingerbreads and gingerbreads. The holiday coincides with the beginning of the Dormition Fast, short, but strict. To a table give honey and fresh cucumbers. From this day beekeepers begin to select honey from the filled sot and as the long tradition orders, - to treat with it all who come to an apiary.honey Names
the Honey season begins
with the first spring heat, with the advent of primroses. Their bitterish smell entices on light of the bees who hardly came round from wintering and serves as a signal to the beginning of work. And when the spring comes into full force, as “suppliers“ of nectar serve trees and bushes - plums, cherries, apple-trees, a bird cherry, a maple, currant, a gooseberry and, of course, the dandelion is considered one of the most generous melliferous herbs. Spring honey is infrequently taken away from beehives. It is necessary first of all to bees for the pro-forage of the young growth which was just born and gaining strength for a summer harvest season. As - bees - the main eaters of honey, and the far-sighted beekeeper has to remember it in any way, trying to select at a bee family only surplus not to transfer it to a high security of economy of a forage.
A meanwhile in the markets May honey is sold in fair quantities. Beekeepers explain: in most cases the name “May“ - a hook on which the buyer, wishing to get freshest, very first honey in a season is easily caught. May it was called in old time, to chronology shift for two weeks. Therefore according to a modern calendar it is more correct to call the first honey early summer, beekeepers carry usually out its first pumping in the middle of June and only in the south of Russia in the first dates after the white acacia fades.
Real “honeymoon“ comes with blossoming of lindens, melliferous flowers and herbs. For beekeepers - it is the most busy season, or as they speak, main bribes. If the apiary settled down near the lime wood - work at bees too much, and the most part from them will be occupied not so much with production, how many nectar processing. The main thing that the linden was “in mood“ (in other years its whimsical flowers do not emit nectar) and that with weather it was lucky - rains wash away nectar from flowers. If favorable conditions, the hectare of the blossoming linden gives ton of nectar and one bee family will be able to prepare per day about a pood (sixteen kilograms) of honey. However industrial scale on gathering pure white honey is possible only in those areas where the big woods of these trees - in the Far East still remained, in Bashkiria. The Bashkir medlipets is around the world known. Pre-revolutionary Russia carried it from the Ufa honey market, and it was twice more expensive other though externally a little in what differed from other grades: in a liquid state - light-yellow, even slightly greenish, however, very fragrant and when becomes candied, becomes light-amber, dense. In Russia the magnificent lime woods davny - are reduced long ago. But in the middle of summer carpets raznotravya - on meadows, forest edges, glades, vyruba are spread here. A willow-herb, the tributary, the clover, a cornflower, a meadow geranium, wild strawberry, a dogrose - real flower “cocktail“ blossom. And the honey collected from different melliferous plants that is poliflerny, will contain various nectars and to be called in the place of its collecting: meadow, forest, mountain. It meets on sale most often.honey from some one plant, that is monoflerny Is much more difficult to receive
. Therefore it is also appreciated above. If, let us assume, near an apiary at the end of summer impressive landings of sunflower blossom, then the bee-keeper has every chance to receive monoflerny podsolnechnikovy honey. And in general the name honey is given depending on that, plant what pollen in it prevails. It is more than pollen from a willow-herb - means, will call kipreyny. Pollen from raspberry prevails - to be to honey crimson. It is hard to define structure on taste, and it is possible to make it only on the basis of laboratory researches.
Honey happens also padevy. It is absolutely special grade prepared by bees from fall - sweet juice which is emitted not by nektarnik of flowers, and leaves of trees or the small insects sucking them. Pad vegetable which bees collect from leaves sometimes in addition call medvyany dew. Parts fall can get to flower honey, reporting it bitterish smack. At us usually treat padevy honey with some mistrust and even neglect, and in the European countries it is appreciated by time above some grades of flower: in padevy - there are more mineral substances.
However, any honey is in own way valuable. The main thing that it was natural. Artificial which is made from beet or cane sugar, juice of a water-melon, a melon or other sugary substances it is deprived of useful properties of whole bee honey.
That to bees it is good...Not any honey to the person is useful to
. Other can give an unpleasant surprise at all. History knows many examples of poisoning with honey. The story of the Athenian commander Xenophon about the “drunk“ honey which knocked down from legs several thousands of soldiers from its army became axiomatic. This historical incident is quite in detail described in Xenophon`s composition “Anabasis“ narrating about military campaigns of Greeks. Having arrived to Colchis where, on the commander`s response, “there was nothing unusual, except a large number of beehives“, soldiers tried delicacies and... were seriously ill:“ tasting honey, fainted: tore them, they did a diarrhea, and nobody was able to stand on the feet, but eaten a little honey resembled on strongly drunk, and eaten much - mads or even dying“. Nobody died of that honey, on the third - the fourth day soldiers were standing, but, it is possible to assume that after that ill-fated meal they did not touch honey at all any more.did not do not know to
at the time of Xenophon yet from what melliferous herbs of a bee bring poisonous nectar. In the territory of Adjara (in the past one of the regions of Colchis) in a large number the rhododendron grows. Modern Batumi beekeepers perfectly know what this melliferous herb is capable of. Most likely, the Greek soldiers tried rododendronovy honey - it contains alkaloid andromedotoksin, causing poisoning. Not less generous supplier of poisonous nectar grows in the Far East. It is a heather chashetsvetny. Its thickets blossom violently and long - the whole month. The tea spoon of honey from juice of this plant will hardly do much harm to the person, but bigger quantity - 100 - 120 grams of “delicacy“ as special literature reports, can “cause loss of consciousness, nonsense“.here honey from nectar of small pink florets of a heather ordinary - dark-amber and very fragrant - any troubles does not cause
A unless has diuretic effect. Researchers found out that drunk honey can turn out from nectar of laurels, an akonit, bushes of a privet and a Labrador tea. Bees from such honey are present no damage, opposite - only use. Bee-keepers specially leave it in beehives that to bees was what to eat during wintering. Though at desire poisonous honey can quite be eaten. It is easy to turn it into absolutely harmless: to heat to 46 degrees - and toxic agents will disappear.other poisons Are much more artful than
: nitrates, pesticides, heavy metals - “memory“ of bee flights to fields and gardens, on green pastures near big highways. Antibiotics which beekeepers rescue bees from their bee diseases also can leave the mark in honey... How to save itself from such gifts and in general to be insured from a fake? An exit one - to buy only that honey which passed laboratory control. And ideally - to find that is called “the“ seller. It, at which both an apiary, and a bee, and honey - the presents, correct.
On moustaches flew In old times honey were fed - it both ate, and saw, to them restored health. Except honey, no other sweets were known. Seasoned with it krupyany dishes, porridges and by all means - a ritual kolivo. It was eaten with pancakes and fritters and added to flour, kneading dough for pies and gingerbreads. By the way, honey still goes to gingerbreads not only for sweet, but also in order that they long remained fresh.Honey in something is similar
to wine - it has a youth and an old age too, it is capable to be stored long too and it is blended too, that is mix among themselves different grades. Blend honey not always, and only when it is necessary to make its taste softer. Some grades of honey - sharp and sharp. Here also add to them quieter, neutral to taste and aroma, such as, for example kipreyny, what bees receive from flowers Ivan - tea.almost all hard liquors prepared
Before emergence of sugar and vodka on honey. The aged man among “pitny med“ honey stavleny is considered. This drink from 15 to 40 years was matured in the pitched kegs earthed as grape wine or cognac. He was trained from honey and natural berry juice, and waters did not add at all. The long term of endurance was established by practical consideration: kegs tried to open earlier, in five years, however drink was not ripened yet and, as they say, left much to be desired. Much quicker, on the third - the fifth year of endurance, kept up strong intoxicated Meda - for acceleration of process added vinegar and hop to them.
over time the technology even more became simpler - pitny Meda began to be in mass demand. So to honey intoxicated and stavleny honey boiled was added - it was cooked as beer. This drink which is fallen in love to the people prepared in only one week. Production of pitny med practically stopped in the 16th century when in Russia essentially new drink - vodka set in. And the compounding of the called, primordially Russian drinks for long time was forgotten. Researchers of Russian cuisine restored it already presently. It is curious that a mead which is often identified with life of Ancient Russia, - the invention of the 20th century. It is ordinary kvass, fruit or barmy home brew with honey addition for which preparation is not required either special efforts, or difficult technologies.
How to define quality of honey
At each grade - “abilities“. Light honey traditionally is considered is more better. Though at dark, it is dark - brown, brown grades of advantages not less: they are rich with curative mineral substances and phenolic connections. Buckwheat, for example, recommend to use at an anemia, and coriander - as zhelchegonny means. >
However upon purchase of honey it is wrong to p to be guided only by color. For a start it is necessary to ask the certificate which is issued by special laboratory the seller, and then to choose honey - to taste, aroma, a consistence. Here it is necessary to trust often the intuition. But quality of the bought honey can be determined by some signs also in house conditions:
- Natural flower honey has to be in a varying degree tart. It a little bit irritates a throat, but on taste - pleasant and sweet. Sourish smack - at the begun to ferment honey.
- Mature honey flows down from a spoon slowly, it cannot be too fluid. The unripe or diluted honey - flows a stream or drips.
- to define whether honey is divorced with sugar syrup, it is possible to lower for several minutes in it a bread piece. If the crumb inflates and will be softened, honey, most likely, is diluted.
- it is possible to Find impurity of flour or starch in honey in two ways: to add a drop of iodine to honey solution or it is a little vinegar. If in the first case solution turned blue, and in the second - began to allocate bubbles as sparkling water, so impurity in honey are. Can dissolve with
- honey in a glass of boiled water. If mechanical impurity in honey are, they will accumulate on a bottom or will rise by a surface. Not only honey, but also its solution has to be pure and uniform.