The novel about homeopathy. Began part 3
A. I. Herzen, the Russian revolutionary democrat, being since 1847 in emigration in Paris, still found echoes of triumph of homeopathy in the last - Parisian - years of life of S. Ganeman. The homeopathy struck Herzen with “incredibility“. Strangely enough, it strikes with “incredibility“ and today.
the Nature of action of homeopathic drugs
Here a simple question, the answer to which can seem improbable. It is known that homeopathic sugar grains most often have diameter of 2 - 3 mm. Let out them in boxes or bags on 10 grams. In each packing - 250 - 300 balls. Question: how many such balls it is possible to make, for example, in the sixth centesimal potentiality of C6, proceeding from a medicinal basis in number of only one gram. Answer: the finished goods will turn out exactly one million kilograms. Who doubts, can easily check calculation if knows that one gram of any spirit solution contains 40 drops, and on each 10 grams (one packing) of sugar “krupka“ there are four drops of potentsirovanny solution.to
Of course, any drugstore does not need such huge number of a proprietary medicine, and she just throws out excess solution. If to consider that the manufacturing techniques of homeopathic drugs do not demand expensive difficult technologies, then and the homeopathy in any country of the world gives economic effect which it is capable to give, it seems improbable.
“Incredibility“ of homeopathy served it bad service. It became one of the reasons of mistrust and sharp rejection from the academic scientific community of last century. Scientists could be understood. Only - having only dumped from itself centuries-old fetters of the Middle Ages and having escaped on open spaces of the strict scientific analysis, the academic thought, without reflecting, swept aside any hints on mystification. But quite so - as mystification was perceived inexplicable “incredibility“ of homeopathy. Especially in the XIX century.
during lifetime of Ganeman the question on which there was no intelligible answer arose: than the homeopathy in what look its medical information comes to an organism treats and whether arrives in general. For example, already for the sixth centesimal potentiality of C6 the ratio between the medicinal basis - “priming“ bearing in itself medical information, and a neutral thinner, for example distilled by water is expressed by fraction 1 x 10 - 12, that is number where in numerator - unit, and in a denominator - unit with 12 - yu in zero. (It is easy to notice that the indicator of minus degree of such fraction for each centesimal cultivation is equal to the doubled potentiality indicator. For C30 potentiality the number of zero is equal in a denominator of fraction 60, and the fraction looks so: 1 x 10 - 60.)for
the next year after publication by Ganeman of “An iatrotechnics organon“ in 1811 open Avogadro`s number, and scientists proved that, since cultivation of C12 (not to mention higher cultivations 30, 50, 200 and so on), the unit of volume of any homeopathic medicine practically does not contain any molecule of initial medicinal substance... But if, since cultivation of C12, in solutions there is no molecule of medicine left, then what information these solutions each other at each subsequent stage of cultivation when receiving higher potentialities of C30, C50, C200 and so on can transfer?the Argument of homeopathists long time was consolidated by
mainly to such representations as “soul“ and “vital force“. There are no words - it is capacious concepts. All religions of the world, for example, appeal to soul. It sounds convincingly when the main argument is the belief. But for science the main criterion - knowledge. And as still exact scientific definition is not given to either the term “soul“, or the term “vital force“, and all arguments based on these concepts are insolvent.
also cases of amazing izlecheniye (even documented) did not convince with which homeopathic practice is rather rich. In medicine there is such concept as effect of placebo (placebo). It is that the patient is given the imaginary medicine which is not containing any medical substance. The main thing, by the patient it is convinced that she accepted a strong effective remedy. Usually after reception of such “medicine“ not only to the patient it becomes better, but also objective analyses confirm it. It is considered that the mechanism of auto-suggestion and an organism works, connecting reserve protective forces, cures itself. And so, without receiving any reasoned answer to the arising natural questions, the academic medicine easily interpreted all references of homeopathists to surprising cases of izlecheniye as effects of placebo.
Nevertheless, rapid development of biology in the XX century it had to is inevitable to lead to an outcome in it 200 - summer dispute between homeopathy and the academic medicine. And the academic science became the arbitrator in dispute.Scientific rehabilitation of homeopathy, or history of the discovery made three times
in Russia, in Moscow, and ended in France. It was preceded by several publications of the first half 70 - x years in which unclear activity of chemicals in concentration to 10 - 25 M, and sometimes big, than in cultivations one to one was once again described. But the science as if disowned from these works, and they did not receive due publicity. The homeopathy was “fenced so off“ from “big“ science that even did not come to the scientists studying action of midget doses of biologically active agents to mind to look for here analogies. the Prelude to our history can consider by
two publications of 1977 - V. P. Yamskova and A. G. Malenkov when were published in solid academic magazines “Biofizika“ and “Molekulyarnaya biologiya“ strange as then it seemed, articles that the adhesive proteins isolated them in low concentration (to 10 - 11 M) show biological activity, and in high - no. Under all laws adopted then in the academic world it should not have been. And therefore nobody, except close friends, turned on articles of attention.History began
in the middle of 1979 when young biochemists are selectors from the Moscow veterinary academy to them. K. I. Scriabin decided to try to define border at which the preparation of a nitrozodimetilmochevin (NDMM) causing the complex physiological answer at the cellular level will cease to show the biological activity. With surprise and even with some alarm (if not with fear) scientists found out that there is no such border. At least where under all famous laws of physics and chemistry solutions of the divorced preparation had to “become silent“, they continued “to act“.
At first they decided that they were mistaken, and repeated the experiments. It was natural reaction of conscientious people. The result was the same. Then began to put experiences on different cellular cultures: seeds of plants, tomatoes, eggs, birds, pigs, drosophilas. Tried not only NDMM, but also several other biologically active agents. Results repeated even then when cultivations were brought to degree, fantastic for the academic science of that time, - 10 - 60M, that is is far for Avogadro`s number. Also there was an assumption that everything put - in water. That she “remembers“ it and “transfers“ biological information from cultivation to cultivation.
Unlike the Dr.Sci.Biol. G. N. Shangin - Berezovsky who headed then these researches, his young colleagues - recent students - S. A. Moloskin, O. S. Rykhletskaya and V. Ya. Adamov of homeopathy did not know rather knew that it something like a pseudo science. Knew also that effect of physiologically active agents in midget concentration cannot be discussed at the serious level as below Avogadro`s number there are no substances in solutions just. It was possible for these unless to show the illiteracy.
However Shangin - Berezovsky was a person extraordinary, and his colleagues - are young. And therefore, having secured with support of the corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR I. A. Rapoport (that which in young years tried to protect genetics in the USSR), began to publish gradually since 1976 the works. But also this time full silence was the answer. Tried to act: it seems, as listened to them, and... did not hear. Exactly - in - exactly as the high science did not hear homeopathy. History repeated. Only this time in the most academic environment.
Meanwhile in the middle of 80 - x years Candidate of Biology V. P. Yamskova started creation of the preparation “Adgelon“ on the basis of the adhesive proteins isolated her, using these proteins in concentration of 10 - 16 M. From the point of view of the academic science of that time the therapeutic effect of a new medicine was absolutely inexplicable, but experts CYTO of N. I. Pirogov, MNTK “Eye Microsurgery“ and scientific research institute of eye diseases of G. Helmholtz were delighted with “Adgelon“. There was a paradoxical situation: medicine entered clinical practice, but had no right to render therapeutic effect in 10 - 16 M.` concentration
However is more difficult to disprove the academic practice, than homeopathic. Therefore on Shangin`s results - Berezovsky and Yamskova looked as at an experimental artifact - the casual emission received as a result of some methodical mistake. Nobody believed that regularity to which in high cultivations, that is in midget doses, almost all biologically active agents submit is open.
But the facts collected, and around the world. And affectation of a situation in relation to homeopathy - its tacit recognition “-the fact“ at simultaneous refusal by it in “-Jure“ - spoke simply. The academic science could not offer explanations for those phenomena which earlier it was able to afford not to notice. now these phenomena knocked at the door to her more and more persistently.
Explosion of current situation took place in June, 1988 after the publication in the most prestigious international scientific magazine “Nature“ (“Nature“) of article of the French scientist - the immunologist, the head of department of National scientific research institute of medicine and health care of France doctor Jacques Benvenist. He reported about results of experiments on check of action of midget concentration of antibodies on force of the immune answer of cells of human blood - a basophile. Conclusions of the scientist were sensational: transfer of biological information is possible also at absence in solution of initial molecules - carriers of this information. And though the situation with midget doses in general and in homeopathy in particular foretold for a long time sensation, the science was not ready to it.scandal Burst in
. And if the human reason could look at events from outside, then it was possible to think that in the world since the time of Ganeman absolutely nothing changed. Again were put to use not only arguments, but also assumptions or even mere allegations like the fact that “it cannot be because can never be“. Even in spite of the fact that before the publication upon the demand of the editor-in-chief of “Nature“ experiments were repeated in Italy - at Milan university, at Ruth Bin Hary`s institute in Israel and at Toronto university in Canada, began to peck Benvenist, caricatures were published in newspapers. Being afraid that now also “Nature“ will get, the editor-in-chief of the magazine hurried to create the commission in which, by the way, there was no expert - the immunologist. But nevertheless she found it possible to disprove results of numerous five years` experiments in five days.all - 200 years passed
I not for nothing. Unlike Ganeman`s era the level of science was already so high that became impossible not only to approve something unfounded, but also unfounded to reject something. As Benvenist told then:“ The situation is irreversible. Process of scientific judgment of a phenomenon went“. Results of experiment began to repeat in laboratories of the different countries of the world.
What allowed Benvenist to make such sensational and at the same time unambiguous conclusion disproving, apparently, firm truth?interaction Reaction a basophile and their antibodies is well-known
in the scientific world. For its visual control use a special additive which paints mix a basophile and their antibodies in a certain color at once as soon as they enter interaction with each other.
If not to go into details of this rather difficult immunological experiment, then its essence consisted in the following. Antibodies before to mix them with basophiles, consistently diluted by 10 times, having brought their concentration to such low degree that in water solution there was no molecule left any more. It turned out that if at each such consecutive dilution it is vigorous to stir up solution of antibodies, then reaction of their interaction with basophiles will be same as though antibodies and did not dilute - dye will also change color. To the contrary, if in the course of consecutive razbavleniye not to stir up solution of antibodies, then, since a certain extent of their cultivation, coloring ceases to be observed.
the Result of experiment showed that transfer of biological information for lack of initial molecules - carriers of this information depends only on stirrings of water solution. And nevertheless this result at first sight seemed improbable. Especially for the people far from problems of studying of properties of water.
By the time of an exit of work of Benvenist of the scientists who are professionally dealing with problems of water was not so a little, but to their opinion not really listened. Even could not come to many researchers to mind that the most widespread substance in the nature - liquid without taste, the smell and color - actually is nearly the most difficult and in many respects yet not solved biological structure in the nature.
concerning the first reaction of general scientific community, not really - that and water, familiar with problems, was figuratively told by S. V. Zenin who defended in 1999 the doctoral dissertation on the subject “The Structured Condition of Water as a Basis of Management of Behaviour and Safety of Live Systems“:“ And what first reaction you would like to see at solid people, that is people who did not get used to deal with focuses if show them, say, a glass with clear water and the gold coin lying at the bottom. Then take other pure glass, slightly cast in it from the first glass then add to top from a water tap and if then do not stir up it, then it and remains only with water and if stir up, then at the bottom of it the gold coin appears too. At first sight, approximately it the result and Benvenist`s works seemed. But only at first sight. I exaggerated here only the size gold impregnations . If in the first glass there is not a coin gold, and only several ions of gold or molecules of its connection, then those, say, medicinal properties which they bear with themselves in solution, will be transferred in each subsequent glass. But!. Only provided that you every time will vigorously stir up a glass with solution. And if this solution is on the basis of the distilled water“.the Wide public response around Benvenist`s work led
to the fact that in minds of people there was a certain turn - scientists of all countries of the world started talking about a new phenomenon - “memory of water“. It became clear that water represents very difficult structural education capable and to remember and transfer information. And though Benvenist did not open anything essentially new (yes he also did not apply for it) but only confirmed what was opened by Ganeman 200 years ago, including also procedure of stirring, Benvenist`s merit is undoubted.
After the publication of its works the situation in science radically changed. Began essentially impossible to claim that the effect of midget doses does not exist. On the contrary, since 1988 the number of the works, representative conferences and congresses devoted to a question of biological activity of midget doses of various substances sharply increased. The Benvenist forced general scientific community to look with the first at water as on the intermediary in transfer of biological information in imaginary solutions (so began to call solutions in which there are no molecules of initial substances).knew
And Benvenist on what threatened. Understanding that the science is close to disclosure of a riddle of midget doses, he told: “We find out soon whether we are the victims of a mirage or revision of fundamental scientific representations is necessary to us...“.
Well, and that Russia? As soon as in the west of the first messages on results of experiments of Benvenist began to appear, in Russia immediately remembered Shangin`s works - Berezovsky. The veil of silence failed suddenly. Correspondents of newspapers and magazines searched for the scientist, members of his team, interviewed. Together with publications there were their photos - young, confused. But business was made. The world spoke about Benvenist`s works...