Rus Articles Journal

Mouse - a norushka in your house

Small amusing mice - remarkable pets. From year to year maintenance and cultivation of mice in city apartments acquires the increasing and great popularity. People like these amusing, gentle and touching small animals who can not only increase mood, force to smile, but also represent the most interesting object for supervision.

On the one hand, the cage or a terrarium with mice looks in an interior as an aquarium with fancy small fishes: mice are unusually nice, effective, funny behave. On the other hand, we deals with the warm-blooded beings possessing certain mental abilities and ability to communicate. You will not snuggle a small fish or a turtle, you will not give smacking kiss in a pink nose, you will not press to yourself to feel warmly soft fur coat, a beating of a tiny heart.

Decorative mice not only are beautiful

, but also are sociable; we can receive certain “return“ from them - caress which so is not enough for all of us... Of course, from a small mouse you should not wait for miracles of advanced intelligence is not a dog, not a cat, but only a little rodent. But the one who holds mice of the house notices a lot of interesting in their behavior: observes how the small animal develops and grows, it is tamed and trained, “grows wiser“ with age, begins to recognize the owner, to rejoice to his emergence in the room, to respond addressed to, to caress etc.


of A little entertaining history


of the Mouse are familiar to people several millennia. When they lodged near the person, it is for certain unknown. However the mouse is considered sinantropny, that is living in synthesis with people, an animal: such animals try to keep near the human dwelling, and their way of life and a food allowance completely depends on those conditions which to them are provided by people. They as if parasitize on us, becoming inevitable part of human life. Mice lodge both in big cities, and in tiny settlements, annoy the person and in poorly developed countries, and in the civilized states of Europe.

Sinantropny animals (pigeons, sparrows, rats etc. also treat them) do not “decorate“ our life, but also do not pose fatal threat for mankind in the modern world - now such horrible diseases as plague, typhus, cholera etc. it is possible to cure and keep a situation under control of public health services, avoiding epidemics. Being cultivated, these beings lose the majority of the negative signs (such as damage of edibles, distribution of infectious diseases, aggression etc.) .

of People removed a set of breeds of pigeons, decorative rats and mice - descendants of laboratory animals. Our little favourites having a tail about whom there is a speech today are a pra - a pra - a pra - great-grandsons of a so-called house mouse - a small animal who throughout long centuries exists near the person, and was once taken by people for cultivation in bondage.

the Area distribution of mice is rather big

therefore we can meet mentions of them in historical documents, fairy tales, myths and legends of the different people.

For example, in translation from Sanskrit (the classic east language existing in the territory of modern India) the word “mouse“ is conformable with a verb which is translated how “to steal“. Ancient people as if emphasized with it such not palatable quality of mice as ability to ruin and spoil a harvest and stocks of the food. In Ancient Egypt mice were held not in high esteem too. They lodged in storages and destroyed grain reserves. For fight against them cats who were brought to the level of sacred animals subsequently were used.

at the time of antiquity to mice quite inconsistent. On the one hand, they were considered as an embodiment of weakness and cowardice, with another - showed the terrible force which is based on unity of many individuals and is connected with gradual, a little noticeable, but destructive work. The relations between the person and a mouse are precisely described in Aesop`s fable about the king of beasts captivated by hunters - a lion - and gnawed through his fetters and by that the little mouse who rescued it.

were considered as

At ancient Jews of a mouse as one of manifestations of evil spirit. But they caused the respectful relation in residents of Ancient Greece and were considered connected with god Apollo`s cult. Often Apollo was represented with the mouse sitting at his legs.

were considered as

On the island of Crete of a mouse as nearly national heroes. According to the legend, they helped inhabitants to be exempted from aggressors: gnawed through leather belts on boards of enemies, having made them disabled.

the Positive assessment the image of a mouse has

also in the countries of the East. There domestication of these animals began for a long time. The set of myths and legends is connected with mice. For example, in Japan mice were considered devoted to god of health Dai - to the Cook. In the Chinese literature relating to 1100 mentions of spotty mice, and also about “waltzing“, that is about mice meet congenital defect of nervous system which is expressed that small animals are constantly turned on one place. In the German mythology of a mouse accompanied god Votan`s vehicle, and also represented souls of the pious dead. There is a legend of the spiteful bishop Gattona who was “punished“ by mice: they found its shelter, by swimming crossed Rhine and bit to death the villain to death, “having revenged“ for his cruelty.

In Russia from time immemorial mice were near the person. In myths and literature cunning dwarfs and brownies quite often are in similar shape. The fantastic folklore usually sympathizes nice “with a mouse - a norushka“, awarding her with positive epithets. Interesting and an origin of the name Mr. Myshkin in the Yaroslavl region. On one of versions, in these parts the little mouse woke the sleeping prince, having run at him on the person. He was angry and wanted to kill a small animal, but here in horror his confidants ran in: enemies approach. Thus, the mouse as if warned the prince about danger.

It is natural, it did not begin to be touched, and the settlement near which there were these events was called the city Myshkin in honor of this little mouse. By the way, in this town there is remarkable Mouse Museum - in it the set of handiworks, products of the national crafts and works devoted to mice is collected. This sight attracts huge flows of the tourists traveling around the Golden Ring, and some go in Myshkin specially - to visit “mouse“ museum. Also in the city there is a great number of remarkable artists, masters of national crafts who regularly organize exhibitions - sales. Anyone can bring an amusing souvenir of a handiwork having a tail from Myshkin. In the European countries studying of mice began long ago. There is an opinion that laboratory and decorative mice originate from black, spotty and white fighting mice about whose reproduction methods in 1787 there was a book. In it it is told about small animals who were used at that time for spectacular fights. They were brought from Japan by the English merchants. But it is only the version.

began to be used by

On an equal basis with dogs, guinea pigs and other experimental animals of a mouse in laboratories from the beginning of progressive development of experimental medicine. The German bacteriologist Robert Koch, for example, made many discoveries with their help. He tested drugs against tuberculosis on mice, and also studied the course of many diseases dangerous to the person.

the Russian scientists, in particular Vinogradov, Swordsmen and Omelyansky, used mice as laboratory animals too - they helped to make many important discoveries in the field of medical and veterinary microbiology, and also played not the last role in development of astronautics, an epizootologiya, physiology, pharmacology and epidemiology.

Scientific managed to be received experimentally animals in whose organism absolutely there are no various microorganisms. Also the individuals infected with one or two known microbes were received. Removal of sterile and linear animals demands huge expenses, but they pay off opening, new, important for all mankind.

Scientists of the different countries removed many pure lines of laboratory animals, in particular white mice and rats. Each line has the individual, descended lines, features and properties, for example lowered or hypersensibility to epileptic seizures, infectious diseases etc. Linear animals are very valuable, their main feature is reaction to influence of these or those physiological and pathogenic factors.

Today around the world the set of clubs of fans of decorative rodents including mice exists. People are engaged in selection, remove new colors and breeds of decorative mice which are pleasing to the eye unusual appeal, an elegant coloring, various structure of wool. For example, a few years ago to our country from - for a boundary so-called satin mice were delivered.

These small animals can be any color, but differ in remarkable property: their hair is fantastically beautiful - it smooth and sparkling, shines at bright lighting. It seems that the fur coat of this mouse as if is made of the thinnest silk or some other poured fabric. Satin mice seem delightful even for people, absolutely indifferent to decorative rodents, very effectively look at exhibitions, are pleasing to the eye and cause general sympathy.

of the Mouse belong to

of Feature of anatomy and physiology to group of rodents, family of mysheobrazny. Rodents - the most numerous group of mammals. At all richness and a variety of species of rodents, they are united by one property: special structure of teeth. Cutters at these animals have no roots, grow during all life and need continuous grinding - for this reason rodents justify the name: they have to gnaw something all the time! The forward party of a cutter is covered with very strong enamel, on the back party enamel is absent therefore it is quicker erased.

Thanks to it tops of cutters always sharp that occurs from - for uneven grindings. Mice have no canines because animals eat generally grains and other vegetable food. For this purpose there are enough sharp cutters capable to crack even very firm objects, and the molars intended for a food mastication.“ Empty“ the interval between cutters and molars at rodents is called diastemy.

the Mouse - quite tiny small animal. The tiniest representative of mysheobrazny - a mouse - the baby, is powerful also of the size of a sugar piece. The house mouse who became the progenitress of laboratory and domestic mice is much larger: length of a body of a mouse can make about 7. 5 cm and even more, a tail - long, annulate, deprived of indumentum, contain about 200 rings. Wool - smooth, short, dense, skintight to a body. Ears - big, with rare indumentum. Eyes of a mouse - round, brilliant, giving to her muzzle a unique charm (“eyes - beads“).

the Most interesting feature of an organism of a mouse is a specific thermal control. To mice, as well as the majority of rodents, it is very difficult to maintain body temperature normal from - for the small size. Regulation happens generally due to reduction or increase in production of internal heat. At low air temperature in an organism of mice there is production of bigger amount of heat, than at high. Small animals can die from - for decreases of the vital activity connected with long cooling and the big consumption of nutrients accompanying it which are not resupplied with the eaten forage.

At increase of air temperature return of heat a body surface, and at the same time and allocation of heat in an organism decreases that too negatively affects process of a metabolism. At some moment body temperature increases to critical. If new portions of heat continue to arrive, the small animal perishes from a heatstroke. Therefore for maintenance of normal body temperature of a mouse spend a lot of energy which is filled at the expense of the food eaten in large quantities. Moreover, her activity, speed of growth and development, consumption of a forage etc. depends on the body temperature of a mouse. All physiological features of this animal and his habit developing throughout many centuries are explained by it: they are directed to overcoming of adverse effects of environment.

As well as all mammals, mice bring up the cubs milk. The season of reproduction and number of a dung which the female within a year can bring depends on a look and conditions of dwelling. In the wild nature of a mouse are active in a warm season, in the winter practically do not breed. But those small animals who live near the person lodge in cellars of houses, barns and storerooms, do not freeze and are provided with food - bring posterity all the year round. Pregnancy lasts about 21 - 23 days, feeding by milk happens approximately within a month, however on 25 - 28 - oh it is better to separate day of little mice from mother, having seated males and females on different cages: some individuals can already be polovozrely.

Council to the owner: Crossing of related individuals for the mice who are contained in bondage is undesirable. Inbreeding (closely related cultivation) is justified only when it is necessary to fix the most valuable pedigree signs, but this measure can lead to emergence of weak, painful and even impractical posterity. However, if the disaster already occurred (for example, did not manage to seat mice in time, “boys“ reached “girls“, got away, tied incidentally etc.) you should not despair.

First of all, it is necessary to warn honestly future owners to whom you will distribute kids from what parents little mice were born. It is necessary to watch closely growth and development of unplanned generation, as preventive measures to visit the veterinarian to reveal predisposition to these or those diseases or, on the contrary, to receive confirmation that health of pets good. Separate, especially “outstanding“ individuals - the large, differing in a good health, having good pedigree signs, can even participate further in exhibitions and be subject to cultivation.