We play and study with calculating sticks of
the Qualitative interesting developing toys cost expensive. More often such toys of all carry out some one function - develop logical thinking or small motility, creative or touch perception. But as it would be desirable to buy interesting, fascinating and inexpensive game which could interest for a long time the child, there would be a mnogofunktsionalna (would develop everything in a complex).
Let`s think at first that we put in the words “developing toy“? What qualities it has to possess? Actually the phrase “developing toy“ not absolutely correct though we everywhere use it in use. The most usual doll with whom the child plays in syuzhetno - a role-playing game develops not less any the most “developing“ toy. However there are games and toys which problem includes only development of mental abilities - mathematical representations, logical thinking, the speech. They are referred most often to category of developing.
our universal toy has to develop mental and creative abilities, to be multipurpose, that is such that it was possible to play with it differently, to use in creative occupations, syuzhetno - role-playing games. Because such toy also develops the child really.
I such toy is! The truth many mothers also do not think of its acquisition as “officially“ it is intended not for games at all, and for school lessons and lies on the shelf near stationery. It to all of us familiar ordinary calculating sticks.
So how it is possible to use calculating sticks as the developing toy?
1. “Dexterous fingers“ . It is possible to develop small motility of hands of the kid already approximately from nine-months age when at it pintsetny capture begins to be formed (it begins to take objects big and index fingers). Make a cut by means of a knife or scissors in a case from calculating sticks and show to the baby as in it it is possible to put sticks on one. Such game can carry away for a long time the kid, children very much like to thrust objects into openings, to hide them. But the kid has to play under your supervision since at this age all that sees an eye, send prompt fingers to a mouth at once.
2. Is displayed on color. Approximately at the same age can begin to teach the kid to sort sticks by flowers. For a start choose sticks of two flowers and show how they can be spread out to two different small groups. You can suggest the child to spread out sticks on boxes or bags. When the kid learns to cope with a task, add a stick of one more color. Such game develops touch perception, ability to compare, find similarity and distinctions, acquaints the kid with logical operations of the analysis and synthesis at the elementary level.
3. In the world of plasticine. Usually in a year and a half various creative tasks begin to offer the child, including, of course, games with plasticine. Ability in the course of creativity to combine various materials develops not only it is non-standard to think of imagination and creativity, but also ability. Calculating sticks are perfectly combined with plasticine. They can become:
- prickles at a hedgehog
- a small stalk at a flower
- a tree trunk
- a fence in the plasticine world
- a pipe at a plasticine lodge
- handles - legs of the plasticine little man
- a mushroom leg
I still a set of different objects which to you will be prompted by your imagination.
4. Is played in geometry. When to begin to acquaint the child with mathematics, parents solve. Someone already over a crib hangs out figures and geometrical figures... And someone waits until he to the child is executed four - five years. Or when the kid himself will show interest in mathematics. Anyway it is very convenient to study mathematics with calculating sticks. They will help not only to learn to count, but also will acquaint with geometrical figures, will help to explain very clear and clearly to the child what is a corner, the party, than a square differs from a rectangle as from one figure it is possible to receive another and a lot of things are many other things. It is possible:
- to spread geometrical figures from calculating sticks
- to spread geometrical figures from calculating sticks on the drawn contour
- to play transformations: just do others of one geometrical figures
the Kid can watch these magic transformations, and to the child is more senior (of 4 - 5 years) it is possible to suggest to perform tasks most: “How to make a rhombus of a square? And parallelogram? How, having added one stick to turn a square into a trapeze? In triangles? How many sticks it is necessary to clean from a square that it turned into a triangle? And how many sticks should be added that the square turned into a rectangle?“ If you are engaged with sticks of one color, then all changes with addition of quantity of sticks (from a triangle - a square, from a square - a trapeze or a rectangle, etc.) for descriptive reasons it is possible to do by means of sticks of other color. For example, you show to the child a figure, then he turns away, and you make transformation. After that the child has to look at result and answer the question “what changed“ and try to understand how it turned out.
- can be acquainted with geometrical concepts
by means of sticks very well and to explain to the child clearly what is the party (stick) and what is a corner (the place where one stick meets another). It is possible to explain to the child what is diameter and why circle size depends on diameter. For this purpose it is enough to put two sticks on a sheet of paper nearby and to draw around them a circle of the corresponding diameter. Two sticks are the diameter of a circle, one stick - radius. And if to take three sticks and to draw a new circle, then it will turn out more previous as length of diameter became more.
5. “Informative paths“. by two years the child gets acquainted with the concepts “wide“ / “narrow“, “long“ / “short“. It can be made, spreading paths from calculating sticks. Show to the kid as it is possible to put a wide or long path from sticks. We put sticks nearby - one to another - the path turns out wide, but short. And if to put one stick to a tip another - the path will turn out long - predlinny, but narrow. We take one stick - it is a short path. We put to it other stick - the path became longer. One more - the path became even longer. It is so possible to acquaint the child with the concepts “short“, “long“, “the longest“, “the shortest“. The child will see that the more sticks in a path, the longer it turns out. And if to use sticks together with plasticine, then it is possible to acquaint the child with the concepts “high“ - “low“.
6. we Learn to consider . Of course, calculating sticks - fine material for training in the account. At the age of about about two years the child already begins to operate with the concepts “one“, it is “a lot of“. Begins to count up to two, and to three - three and a half years considers in repartitions of five (quantitative recognition of objects, but not mechanical naming of sequence of figures means). By means of calculating sticks it is possible to show visually structure of number, to get acquainted with the simplest mathematical operations of addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, to study concepts of number and quantity.
For children of two - three years.Take
- from a small group of sticks one and put separately. The kid has to show where one stick and where there is a lot of. Take
- two sticks, tell the child that sticks two. Look together for other couples of objects (two hands, two legs, two eyes, can be two chairs in the room, etc.) . Explain that if to take one and one more, it turns out two.
- you Teach the kid to correlate quantity of objects and their numerical designation. Draw cards with numbers from one to five. Show it in day no more than one new a card with number and the corresponding quantity of sticks. In the first day put before it a card with figure 1 and one stick, add a card with figure 2 next day and so on.
- Lay out down cards with figures from one to five, and near each card the corresponding quantity of sticks. Pay attention of the child that the quantity of sticks all the time increases by one (one and one more - two, two and one more - rub, rub also one more - four and so on).
- If you see that the child without difficulties learns quantity of objects within five and correlates them to figures, suggest him to select the necessary quantity of sticks to cards.
Children of 4 - 5 years already freely operate with quantity within 10, however it is still difficult for them to make mental operations of addition and subtraction, it is difficult to measure by eye quantity of objects more than 5 - 6 (they recalculate them).
For children of four years.take
- For studying of a ratio of number and quantity cards from 0 to 10. Lay out cards down, and near each card put the corresponding number of sticks. Pay attention of the child that the quantity of sticks all the time increases by one. Give
- to the child of a card with figures. It has to take the corresponding quantity of sticks.
- we Study structure of number. How it is possible to spread out number 5? Take for descriptive reasons sticks of two different flowers and spread from them number 5: for example, two blue and three yellow. Or one blue and four yellow etc.
- Suggest the child most to guess how many sticks it needs to report to a certain number. For example, you spread four sticks. How many still sticks it is necessary to put that there were ten?
- C the help of sticks to the child of 5 - 6 years can be explained clearly what is “example“ as operations of subtraction and addition are designated. Take two sticks of one color and three sticks of other color. Ask the child how many sticks. Then between sticks of different flowers put plus sign, and over sticks from above put their numerical designations (2 × 3). To explain subtraction operation, take five sticks and a card with figure 5. Then take away two sticks, and near a card with number put a card with a minus sign and a card with figure 2. Ask the child how many sticks remained (cards can be replaced with figures from the magnetic alphabet).
- If you see that the child understands your explanations, can acquaint him with an equal-sign
- Spread expression by means of sticks, and the child will have to spread also by means of sticks the answer after an equal-sign. When the child begins to cope surely with a task, replace sticks with numerical designations. Do not give to the child of difficult examples with large numbers, solve problems within ten. For the kid it is important to understand sense and the principles of addition and subtraction, and further multiplication and division.
When the child will learn to put and subtract
within ten, you can acquaint him with operations of multiplication and division.to
- for this purpose to you will need sticks and cards with numbers and some toys. For example, take figures of a cow, a horse and a lamb. You have three animals (put before the child a card with figure three). At each animal on three tasty carrots (put three red or orange sticks before each animal and take one more card with figure three). How to consider how many carrots at animals? For this purpose it is necessary to increase three (between cards with figures we put a multiplication sign) by three, that is to take three times on three. Consider how many carrots will turn out if animals there are two, and everyone will take three carrots. And if to give to three animals on two? To understand the principle of division, take several carrots - sticks and suggest the child to divide them equally between three animals. The amount of carrots which appeared at each toy will also be result of division. You divide different amount of carrots between different quantity of animals. It is possible to show to the child that not always it turns out to divide objects equally without the rest. can explain
- by means of sticks and cards with figures to the child, than the figure differs from number and from quantity. For this purpose sticks and cards with figures from zero to nine will be required. Explain to the child that figures only 10. When the figure designates some quantity, it becomes number. Of figures there are all numbers. You can show to the child big two and three-digit figures and to call them. Let the child give numbers of which they are made. For example, to write number 10, it is necessary to take two figures unit and zero. The quantity of objects can be very big therefore in order that somehow to designate them, and thought up figures and numbers. Lay out together with the child near cards with numbers the quantity of sticks corresponding to them.
and carries out simple operations within 10, you can pass to acquaintance to two-place numbers.
- to show what is ten, spread it in one color, and numbers of the second order - to others. Eleven are ten blue sticks and one yellow, twelve - ten blue and two yellow and so on.
7. Is drawn by sticks. From sticks can be laid out on the plane anything. Lay out from them the road, and the child with pleasure will roll on it machines. Lay out the crosswalk, take dolls and you learn traffic regulations. By means of sticks it is possible to plant multi-colored flowers on a floor, to draw houses, cars, angular cats or dogs, birds and fishes, little men - anything. The more sticks - the more interestingly. Such game perfectly develops imagination of the child.
8. of the Stick - the designer. For game will need calculating sticks and plasticine balls. Connecting sticks by means of plasticine, it is possible to build the most different three-dimensional figures. We develop not only imagination, creative thinking and spatial perception, but also we get acquainted with solids (a cube, a cone, a prism).
9. “Logical chains“. Vykladyvaniye by means of sticks of logical chains with a certain rhythm helps the child to develop touch perception, attentiveness, logical thinking, understanding of sequences. This game can have two options: or you spread the chain of sticks, and the child has to lay out the same chain as yours, or you begin to spread a chain with a certain rhythm and ask the child to continue it (the second option, of course, more difficult).“ The changing sequence of flowers of sticks or their arrangements can be a rhythm“. Begin with the simplest chains, for example, alternation of yellow and green sticks. Complicate gradually tasks. It is possible to change an arrangement of sticks, to put them horizontally or vertically, at the same time to use various color combinations.
10. of the Toy - deputies. Ability to use objects in game activity - deputies is a necessary element in development of children`s game. The simplest example of this phenomenon - the palm attached to an ear and representing the receiver. The child can carry with enthusiasm on a table a piece of bread as the machine, to feed dolls with cubes - cakes and to shoot a forefinger at the invisible opponent. Calculating sticks perfectly fit in in syuzhetno - role-playing games. Children most often represent them spoons - serving spoons and feed with them dolls, happens, sticks become tiny automatic equipment and guns, and from a heap of the sticks put in a toy saucepan it is possible to cook excellent spaghetti.the Imagination of the child and keen parents is boundless