Reservoir in a garden - it is real. Part 1
Today many estimate the garden - a kitchen garden not only from the point of view of receiving a harvest, but also as the vacation spot where it is possible to relax and just to have a good time. And at such statement of a question there is nothing surprising that about water in a garden, whether it be the pond, a stream or a bog, write quite often.Only in practice in the majority existence something similar absolutely few can brag of
. It`s not just that most often the reservoir appears technically rather difficult construction demanding from its owners is a lot of expenses of forces and time. Unfortunately, this also quite expensive pleasure. And it not just words - the matter is that I had to pass through all epic of construction of a reservoir in the garden. And before it for acceptance of the right decision to study all technologies of a construction of reservoirs, to visit all organizations providing similar services in our city, to carry out calculations and to compare all technologies among themselves. Therefore, I think that results of my researches will be interesting.
First what it is necessary to make a start from is to understand for what purposes you are going to use a pond. The purposes can be different, and the technical solution will depend on it directly.decorative appointment without landing of water plants Is pure
- . In this case you should not burden yourself with creation of serious constructions with a concrete bowl - to get the size necessary to you and a configuration a ready bowl from special plastic and vryt it much more simply or to cover a bottom and walls of the dug ditch with a special film. The sizes and form do not play a special role here though you should not forget that in a big pond it is simpler to provide balance and to fight against a water pozeleneniye, than in small.
- Decorative appointment with landing of water plants. It is also simpler to go in this case on the way of acquisition of a ready reservoir or to cover a reservoir with a special film - concrete designs it is not obligatory to create. But when planning landing of plants it is necessary to provide in a pond different depths as the most decorative zone with rich flora and fauna is the boggy zone up to 20 cm in depth. Such zone has to make about 40% of the total area of a pond as cannot remain without sufficient water giving which is provided by a deep water zone. Ideally the marsh zone (up to 20 cm in depth) has to turn into shoal which has to occupy about 35% of the space of a pond. The deep-water zone has to occupy about 25% of the space of a reservoir and have depth from 0,8 to 1 m. Thanks to this zone water temperature in a pond quickly does not increase in the summer that interferes with damage of water and provides to water fauna good rewintering.
- Use of a reservoir as pass - the pool means creation of big concrete bowls which internal surface has to have some waterproofing covering. Coverings can serve both a bowl from polyvinyl chloride, and a special film or a covering manually special waterproofing structures. Anyway the construction will be very labor-consuming and expensive and enough big sizes with depth not less than 1,5 m Cultivation of fishes have to be unambiguous
- assume existence of a big pond with a deep water. The deep water (according to the Moscow experts depth we have to have not less than 80 cm, in the Urals, perhaps, the deep water is required - here it is necessary to understand) is necessary in order that the reservoir did not freeze through to the bottom in the winter, and there was enough oxygen in the lower sheets of water for wintering of fish. From the theoretical point of view, it is possible to do without construction of a concrete bowl - to dig a ditch enough and to cover it with a waterproofing film.
Is recommended to place reservoirs on the open space protected from strong winds. However it is necessary to consider that the surface of the water of a reservoir can be subject to influence of sunshine no more than six hours a day. Surplus of solar radiation leads to intensive reproduction of green seaweed and water bacteria. Besides, water plants and fishes suffer from surplus of solar energy. To find out how many hours a day the reservoir will be under direct sunshine, planning is recommended to be carried out in the summer when trees have dense krone.to
it is Absolutely close to trees it is not necessary to place a reservoir as there will be problems with cleaning of a surface of the water of the fallen-down foliage littering a reservoir. Besides, roots of trees can damage a bottom of the operating reservoir.
the Form of the pool can be various: round, rectangular or uncertain. On open spaces with a “wild“ landscape the pools of a free form emphasizing all naturalness of a decorative environment look better. Near constructions, in classical ensemble usually create reservoirs of the correct geometrical forms.
Reservoirs - pools more often do rounded shapes as in corners of rectangular reservoirs the garbage which removal time represents considerable complexity periodically accumulates.the Sizes
with determination of the sizes of future reservoir. The reservoir has to fit harmoniously into your garden, without breaking the general style. Determining by
the sizes of future pond, keep in mind that on each square meter of a water surface the pond has to have, whenever possible, water volume over 400 l. The more water volume in a pond, the will be easier for you to support further him in the required biological balance. Small reservoirs strongly get warm in the summer that leads to pollution and fast damage of water which should be changed at least once a week that is very inconvenient. In general experts do not recommend to create ponds which unruffled surface less than 3,5 sq.m as decorative twigs of the smaller sizes not always well look. Besides, it is necessary to look after them from - for the small volume of water constantly that very tiresomely. For a water mirror within 3 - 5 quarter. the m is recommended depth of 60 - 80 cm; from 5 to 15 sq.m - 80 - 100 cm. At the area of 15 sq.m the bottom has to defend from a surface on 100 cm and more.
the Decorative reservoir with plants is not present sense to do deeper than 1 m. Supplementing a decorative reservoir with falls, the fountain, a stream or a source, you remember that not all water plants love a current and almost all badly transfer the splashes getting on flowers and leaves to a hot sunny day. It is necessary to provide deep places where it will be possible to lower containers with water-lilies for the winter period because the majority of them winter lower than the level of frost penetration in water in reservoirs less than 0,8 m in depth. Planning the device pass - a reservoir, think over the place of wintering of plants.
A a pond - the pool, on the contrary, has to have depth not less than 1,5 m, otherwise use it in quality pass - the pool to be dipped, say, after a bath, it will not turn out.
Alas, at all appeal of this idea the reservoir can potentially constitute danger, and not only for children, but also for adults.near it experts recommend to
For the prevention of casual falling in a reservoir of adults (from dizziness nobody is insured) when working a construction of high sides. The option when sides reach the adult`s knee is considered optimum. Of course, in case of existence of natural ponds it is unreal as it will not be possible to disguise reservoir borders stones. Therefore here it is necessary to look for some compromise option - correctly to choose location, the situation is more difficult not to forget about creation of convenient approaches to a pond, etc.
if you have small children whom, as usual, pulls there where they absolutely do not need to get. Therefore for safety it is necessary to get a special pond grid (it is available on sale in specialized shops), which stretches over a water surface. Of course, such grid is not really attractive, but at growth of water plants it almost it is not visible at all. At the correct strengthening the grid is almost over a water smooth surface and interferes with that the child could fall in water.
In practice is one of the most complex problems. Here you have two ways.
Can perform all works by own efforts, but then you precisely should forget about everything and to spend for construction at least all season. It is worth noticing that you will be able to build not all options of reservoirs without invitation of experts. For example, the reservoir on the project to you will be not to make of polyvinyl chloride owing to banal lack of the necessary equipment and experience and not to weld a film, and here it is necessary to construct not that pond what you want, and what the sizes of the sold film allow to build.
Can invite experts from the relevant companies which will competently plan and will make for you a unique pond. It is possible to brag of such reservoir safely to friends and neighbors, however it will run to you very much and very into money. But these experts will make and will establish you only a pond (to tell more precisely, the corresponding capacity from plastic, metal or will weld a film). And all other operations: i.e. direct digging of a ditch under a pond and a construction of a concrete bowl (if it is necessary) you, most likely, should do. The matter is that at us in the city, for example, only 3 - 4 firms are engaged in a construction of ponds, and the teams of workers which are available at them are painted till late fall inclusive, and of a hand at them will not reach ordinary gardeners.
Besides, it is worth noticing that at a reservoir construction with a concrete bowl it is simple not to do without invitation of workers. And business not so much that it is very hard work, and is more that only fast continuous filling will provide creation of a reliable concrete design. One person beyond its powers, needs crew. From own experience I can tell that it is much more reliable to find such crew among workers from the friendly republics in modern conditions. They to you will make all work in extremely short time and for twice smaller sum, than similar teams of the Russian experts.Technical solutions
the Film reservoir without concrete bowl
This option is suitable
for any ponds and allows to create reservoirs completely to the taste: any form and any size. However when forming average and big ponds the film needs to be welded - by own efforts not to make it and it is necessary to ask for the help the specialized companies.
the Film has to be special - for artificial reservoirs. It is not wrinkled and does not crumble over time, is strong on a gap and is not damaged by roots of plants. It can be used safely in reservoirs where fishes live. The film does not contain toxic substances, is steady against influence of ultraviolet rays and cold. Such material quietly perezimut under water even at - 30 ° C. Films are issued two types: from polyvinylchloride (PVC) - thinner and suiting only for tiny ponds, and from the synthetic rubber (SR) - up to 2 mm thick, they it is more preferable to average and big ponds.If width of a film have not enough
completely to close all ditch, it is stacked tapes with an overlap. In places of connections it has to be or is stuck together (for PVC), or boiled thoroughly (SK). Necessary materials for this purpose offer firms - producers of film materials. Welding can be carried out both at the enterprise, and on a reservoir site. Its cost makes about 25% of the price of film material.
the Film keeps within not directly on soil: the first layer stack geotextiles which protect a film from sharp roots and stones.