Rus Articles Journal

Mushrooms or vegetables?

In a warm season when the nature comes to life, there is a wish to diversify a diet and to indulge itself and the relatives with seasonal products. Among such products in the summer and there are mushrooms in the fall. But for the kid they are not safe.

Mushrooms: full “file“

edible fungi something are similar

On the chemical composition to vegetables: the amount of protein in fresh mushrooms reaches 2 - 3%, and in dried increases to 30% (when drying due to reduction of amount of moisture the amount of solids, in this case a squirrel increases). But protein this defective, is badly acquired. Vegetable cellulose in dry mushrooms - to 20%; carbohydrates - about 15%; 10% of various zhiropodobny substances, including fatty acids, sterols, fosfatida, essential oils. Essential oils give to mushrooms a peculiar aroma, and pitches - characteristic causticity. Organic acids of mushrooms are presented oxalic, fumaric, lemon and wine. From enzymes in mushrooms there is an amylase, urease, a lipase promoting splitting of fats and a glycogen (animal starch).

Almost all edible fungi contain vitamins A, B1, B2, C, PP, and also vitamin D, not characteristic of phytogenesis products. The mineral structure is presented by sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, chlorine and sulfur.

the Power value of fresh mushrooms is low

and fluctuates within 20 - 30 kcal on 100 g of a product, at dried mushrooms it increases by 10 times. The mushrooms which are the lowest sporous plants contain the substances characteristic of live organisms and not characteristic of plants. Treat them the vitamin D which is formed under the influence of an ultraviolet in tissues of animals of sterols; urea - active agent, the main product of disintegration of proteins; glycogen - animal starch which plants do not have; and fungin - albumen which is difficult acquired and burdens activity of bodies zheludochno - an intestinal path. For this reason the use of mushrooms at diseases of a liver, gall bladder, pancreas, stomach and duodenum is forbidden, and also in food of children aged till 5 - 7 years.

is Limited by use of mushrooms in food of adults and the accumulating ability of this product excludes in a diet of children. Mushrooms as sponges, are capable to absorb in themselves everything that contains in the soil. Therefore even the edible fungi which grew about highways and collected on lawns in the big city can be poisonous. These mushrooms accumulate in high concentration lead, mercury, cadmium and other heavy metals which gradually cause a serious poisoning. Besides heavy metals in mushrooms pesticides and herbicides which process fields from harmful insects and weed plants collect. the Mushrooms of house conservation (placed in hermetically corked banks) both to children, and adults it is dangerous to p to eat

! The slightest carelessness in processing, salting and conservation of mushrooms can lead to development of botulism - diseases with high degree of a lethality. Botulism - the disease caused by the products infected with botulism sticks. The activator - Clostridium botulinum, an anaerobe bacteria (breeds in lack of oxygen), who is widespread in the nature, a long time can be in the soil in a look dispute. Without oxygen access, for example at conservation of products in tight banks, bacteria of botulism begin to breed, emitting toxin which is the strongest bacterial poison.

Why vegetables are useful to

?

mushrooms are brought closer by

On the nutrition value and a chemical composition to family of vegetables. Unlike mushrooms, vegetables have to be used in baby food daily.

Vegetables are plants which various parts we eat. On this sign vegetables are subdivided into several types: kornevishchny (horse-radish); rhizocarpous (carrots, beet, swede, turnip, garden radish and so forth) ; klubneplodny (potatoes, earth pear); stem (asparagus); sheet (salad, spinach, cabbage, rhubarb, sorrel, fennel); flower (cauliflower, artichoke); fruit (tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplants, bean and many others). Each of these products differs in special flavoring and nutritious characteristics, and on physiological action on an organism they have much in common.

the Cauliflower contains not enough cellulose and sulfurs therefore it does not promote development of a meteorizm in children.
Practically all vegetables are deprived by

fat and contain few proteins - 0,3 - 4%, and only in siliculose bean the level of protein is increased to 6%. Vegetable proteins have defective amino-acid structure (do not contain irreplaceable amino acids) and are insufficiently well acquired by an organism as are put into cellulose and are remote for influence of digestive juice and enzymes. But in it the special value of vegetables - also consists in the considerable content of neusvoyaemy polysaccharides, differently - ballast substances, or food fibers.

Cellulose (cellulose, a gemitsellyuloza) in spite of the fact that it conditionally treats an uglevodisty component of a product, is not dissolved in water and not split by “carbohydrate“ enzyme of a pancreas amylase. Thanks to this “not digestibility“, cellulose has exciting effect on the nervous terminations of a mucous membrane of a digestive tract, thereby strengthening sekretorny and motor activity of a stomach, intestines, education and outflow of bile. Besides, cellulose is used for formation of kalovy masses, at the same time it “takes away“ on itself harmful cholesterol and brings him out of an organism. Cellulose suppresses putrefactive processes in intestines, thereby normalizing its microflora. Thanks to these qualities the vegetables rich with cellulose have preventive and medical effect at locks, intestinal dysbacteriosis, diseases of a liver and bilious ways, obesity and atherosclerosis. But it is necessary to remember that the same products need to be limited in diets where the mechanical shchazheniye - at gastritises, enterokolita is required, to stomach ulcer.

an Irreplaceable role for a human body is played by the pectinaceous substances which are contained in vegetables and fruit. Pectins suppress putrefactive microflora, adsorb on themselves and by that neutralize various poisons, heavy metals, possessing the enveloping property, protect covers of a digestive tract from the damaging influences.

Vegetables along with fruit are the main source of potassium, and also a number of minerals - copper, cobalt, manganese and vitamins - a beta - carotene, ascorbic acid, vitamin P and U.

Vegetables possess ability to zashchelachivat the internal environment of an organism that is used in medical foods at violation kislotno - alkaline balance, an uraturiya, an oksaluriya - metabolic disorders which quite often meet at children`s age.

Along with a large number of alkaline components some vegetables contain organic acids which increase flavoring properties of diets, excite sekretorny function of a stomach and pancreas, stimulate an intestines vermicular movement, possess bactericidal properties.

Some vegetables contain special substances - essential oils, complex organic compounds which drench with a volatility, the expressed peculiar aroma and burning taste. They are the strong chemical irritants operating not only at direct contact with body tissues but also at distance from them. Essential oils possess a strong irritant action - irritate a conjunctiva of eyes, mucous membranes of a nose, a throat, an oral cavity, zheludochno - an intestinal path, and after absorption in blood - a liver and a pancreas. Onions, garlic, parsley, fennel, a celery, a radish, a garden radish are richest with essential oils. In food of children of early age and the children having diseases zheludochno - an intestinal path, these products, except for greens, should not be used in the period of an exacerbation of a disease both carefully and extremely seldom - during remission (total or temporary disappearance of symptoms of a chronic disease). Besides essential oils some vegetables (and onions and garlic-) contain flying antimicrobic substances in a large number - phytoncides under the influence of which in an organism causative agents of some infectious diseases perish.

the Vegetable diet

the Most popular vegetable - potatoes are an important source of polysaccharides, for example such as starch. Among vegetables potatoes differ in the largest caloric content (80 kcal in 100 g of a product), but his squirrels have the best amino-acid structure. Potatoes contain in a large number potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur, chlorine, iron, cobalt, iodine, bromine. In it there are a few vitamins of group B and C, but because this product is eaten almost daily, it is one of the most reliable sources of these vitamins.

Different types of cabbage : white, red, Bruxelles, color, Savoy, a kohlrabi - are a valuable source of mineral substances, especially the potassium perfectly balanced with sodium, and also vitamins P, K, U, C. Color and Brussels sprout is richer with protein and vitamin C, in comparison with white. Besides, in them there is not enough cellulose and sulfur therefore they do not promote development of a meteorizm (the increased gas generation) in children.

Children from 1 year to 3 years have to receive 200 g of vegetables a day.
the Rich vitamin structure is noted by

at root crops - carrots, beet, a swede, turnip, a radish, a celery, parsley.

Carrots contain a little vitamin C, but it is much more than niatsin and a folatsin, and especially there is a lot of carotene. Carrots many times over surpass other vegetables and fruits, for example pumpkin, the tomatoes, paprika rich with this vegetable pigment in its contents. Carotinoids in a human body turn into vitamin A. It, in turn, is active group of visual protein of a rodopsin and participates in maintenance of normal sight. At its deficiency twilight sight sharply decreases (the national name of this disease - night blindness).

Beet is rich with iron, zinc, potassium, manganese, cobalt, vitamins of group B, C, R. Soderzhashchiysya in beet a pigment a betaine is formed of glycine amino acid, promotes digestion of proteins, interferes with development of obesity and therefore it is widely used for preparation of dietary supplements.

Turnip, a radish and a garden radish , though contain vitamins of group B, C, a little folic acid, are not recommended in food of children of early age as consist of the rough cellulose causing gas generation processes and contain many essential oils causing irritation of the eyes, burning in a mouth which are strongly stimulating digestion processes.

Tomatoes, eggplants, pepper contain many minerals and vitamins: carotene, ascorbic acid, tsitrin, vitamins of group B.

Cucumbers, vegetable marrows, bush pumpkins, pumpkin - rather watery vegetables. So, cucumbers contain up to 95% of water and therefore, thanks to the gentle cellulose, have easy poslablyayushchy effect on an organism. Cucumbers it is not enough vitamins B, but the potassium ratio with sodium is well balanced. Vegetable marrows are rich with salts of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, ascorbic and nicotinic acid, vitamins of group B. The pumpkin having characteristic yellow color contains rather high concentration of carotene.

Bean - peas, haricot, beans, lentil, soy, though are rich with potassium, phosphorus, manganese, lecithin, vitamins of group B, in food of children of early age are not used or used carefully as the coarse-fibered structure of these vegetables causes processes of fermentation and gas generation in intestines.

Lettuce leaves are rich with salts of potassium and calcium, vitamins C, E, K and contain a little carotene.

Parsley and a celery - important sources of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, molybdenum, is a lot of in them ascorbic and folic acids.

we Make the menu

Children from 1 year to 3 years have to receive 200 g of vegetables a day (cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots, beet, greens and so forth) which are used for preparation of first courses, garnishes, salads, vinaigrettes, baked puddings.

At the use of vegetables it is very important to p to follow certain rules of their culinary processing, only in this case the necessary result - the maximum preservation of nutritional value of products, improvement of their flavoring properties and assimilation by an organism can be achieved. In the course of mechanical and thermal treatment of vegetables they are influenced by destructive forces of environment - the water, oxygen, an ultraviolet, oxidizing enzymes which are contained in plant cells. Under their influence there is a washing away, oxidation and destruction of many mineral substances and vitamins, organic acids and aromatic substances. Therefore it is important to use all known ways reducing losses of precious nutrients.

In food both adults, and children it is better to use svezhesrezanny vegetables. If there is no such opportunity, then the bought products have to be stored in the cool place without access of the destroying action of an ultraviolet. It is necessary to wash out vegetables under flowing cool water, not for long, without presoaking.

to Cook vegetables, as well as other products, it is better in a peel, immersing them in the boiling water. You should not boil down vegetables a long time: any heat treatment destroys vitamins.

Should not be done to

also for vegetable salads of preparation (to cut vegetables in advance): the cut vegetables on air are oxidized and vitamin C collapses. In a warm season the microbic obsemeneniye of preparations, and, as a result, after use of such dishes - sharp intestinal infection is not excluded.

Recipes Vegetable baked pudding

Will be required to

by

:

  • potato of average size;
  • tomato - 1 piece;
  • mincemeat - 30 g;
  • soft cottage cheese - 1/2 h a spoon;
  • fennel, salt - to taste;
  • olive oil - 1 h a spoon;
  • breadcrumbs.

the Potato to clear and cut on pieces, to boil within 10 minutes, to merge water. To drench tomato with boiled water, to husk, remove sunflower seeds, to cut pulp on pieces. To fry mincemeat in olive oil. Potatoes to pound, mix with cottage cheese. In the form oiled vegetable to lay out layers forcemeat, tomato, potatoes, and to strew from above with breadcrumbs. To bake in an oven within 10 minutes. From above it is possible to strew baked pudding with small cut fennel.

cauliflower Salad

Will be required to

by

:

  • a cauliflower - 50 g;
  • egg boiled - 1/4 piece;
  • vegetable oil - 1/2 h a spoon;
  • greens, salt to taste.

the Cauliflower to weld, crush a fork, to add the crushed boiled egg, greens, salt, a drop of lemon juice, to fill salad with vegetable oil.