“And“ fell “, B“ was gone... As it is good to be able to read
! But how drearily and tiresomely to study this knowledge. All are nervous: children, parents, and even patient grandmothers. Such torments can forever fight desire to put letters in words off the child. However everything is not so gloomy. It is enough to choose the correct technique - and at you everything will turn out, our author Elizabeth Ponomareva considers.
That it, Watson?
From the point of view of biology reading is the difficult process depending on the coordinated work of several sites of a brain. If the person learned to speak 100 thousand years ago, then he began to read rather recently - about 30 thousand years BC, and till the 15th century people read exclusively aloud.
Scientists consider that the department of the brain which is responsible that “ma - ma we are la ra - mu“ does not exist. It is possible even to tell that reading is not absolutely natural to us. Especially sharply it is felt at literature lessons when during studying of the third volume of “War and peace“ long phrases of Tolstoi just refuse to be located in the head.
“The person at any age can be developed, and it is possible to train. What, for example, differs in line in - repetitive system from methods of treatment of stutter in the movie “Opposition“ where the traitor Krotov was beaten with current, did not begin to speak normally yet? It is possible to create necessary associative communications or to burn out them red-hot iron by means of many techniques. Unfortunately, mothers who decided to make a supercomputer of the child often do not manage to teach him to be the person - tender, the player laughing and empathizing. Progress does not stand still, and “new the person“ which should as soon as possible learn to be read and written to be connected to Worldwide network and to begin to stick on world corporation, perhaps, will appear soon. But to what to hurry? Besides discrepancy of level of training of the child to the level of peers (not important, it is higher or below) guarantees problems even before leaving school.
If the child himself shows interest in reading, to it, certainly, it is worth helping to learn to do it. And if the kid runs from abc-books as from a terrible monster, then you should not force it and to train, just its time did not come yet. The baby - the most unfortunate being in our society. Regret children and facilitate them “the happy childhood“.
Alexey Eremin, the psychologist
the Brain masters science to put words and syllables for years: even today by means of special training adults can learn to read quicker and will better understand read. So Goethe not without reason complained:“ These kind people also do not suspect what works and time it is worth learning to read. I on it used 80 years and I cannot still tell that I quite achieved the objectives“.
in the context of psychology reading is an understanding of written language. And for this understanding the semantic perception, attention, memory and thinking have to be developed. Therefore before training the child to put letters in words, experts advise to check whether the kid coherent offers is able to speak, whether can retell history, whether distinguishes separate sounds in words, whether it has logopedic problems, whether spatial orientation (not to confuse “R“ and) is developed and whether, at last, pulls him to fairy tales and rhymes.
When there comes readiness for reading? In this respect there are several points of view. So, some psychologists consider that it is better to begin lessons by 7 - 11 years when the child enters the period of development of logical communications and will save up enough experience for the judgment read. There is also an opposite approach which appeared in 1990 - x years, on a wave of popularity of ideas of early development. Supporters of revolutionary techniques claim that 4 - to the summer child to master the alphabet already late, and here in 2 years, and even in six months - it. And all - most of psychologists incline to thought that the optimum age for the little reader is 4 - 7 years: at this particular time “biology“ and “psychology“ are ready to mastering great and mighty.
of What at a cat three, and at a mouse four
of Research show that even adults spell words. But do it so quickly that think as if perceive the word, and even the whole phrase, entirely. So freely to read, it is necessary to distinguish easily and quickly letters and to correlate them to sounds.
One of classical techniques of training in reading - a systematic phonetic method. At first children are taught names of letters and sounds, then addition of sounds in syllables, and syllables in words.to
But kids (years to four) cannot explain a difference between a letter and a sound. To understand why from, “about“ and “te“ “cat“, but not “kaote“ turns out, they are not able. As a result, and to them, and parents reading begins to seem some nonsense. This method is suitable for children is more senior. They are already able to understand that “we say sounds and we hear, and we see letters and we write“. By the way, usually also begin lessons of “the native speech“ in the first class with it.Ma`s
- ma, ma - ma that I will do
Studying of 33 letters of the alphabet business slow - the risk is to lose thirst for reading in general. Therefore authors of some techniques consider that the syllable, larger phonetic unit (Elkonin D. B has to become the main reference point when reading at once. “How to teach children to read“).the Instruction
to Teach the kid to read
- a method you chose, use only the abc-books and grants adapted for preschool children;
- apply symbolics (graphic schemes of syllables and words);
- analyze the read words with the child (“In the word HOUSE how many sounds? What first?“ ) It will allow to achieve intelligent reading and to avoid problems with spelling;
- acquainting the kid with a letter, connect all sense organs: mold it from plasticine, cut out from paper, draw on sand, etc.; graphic tracings of letters study
- only in their printing option;
- reading - too the speech, only written therefore be convinced that your child has no logopedic problems; do not demand
- from the child of fast reading. When skill is created and will be fixed, speed will increase;
- discuss read. Ask questions, argue together on what could occur to the described event and that will happen to characters further.
Elkonin pays attention that when training in letters of kids often confuse pictures. For example, we show what “In“ is “camel“. But actually “camel“ begins with a soft sound [in ] . Let`s add still what to understand why from a combination of pictures “a mouse - a stork - the mouse - a stork“ has to turn out “mother“, - too a difficult task. By the way, intuitively groped the slogovy method described only decade later. Lev Tolstoy in the to “The new alphabet“. It is based on syllables and short words in 4 - 5 letters too. Until slukhorechevy memory is not really developed, the child, having begun to spell the long word, can just forget by the end what all this “ku - ku - ru - for“ began with. Tolstoy also avoided heavy combinations of concordants and was at rhythmical, simple loss for words, like “a cloud, a heap, children“.
the Slogovy method of training copes with a problem of preparation for school, and usually children are easily trained to read on this system.
On Zaytsev`s warehouses
One more phonetic method similar to syllabic is called skladovy (from here “to spell“). In it not the word is split up for syllables, and sounds connect in warehouses. Earlier children and learned by heart: “Beeches“ of “Az“ are “OH“, “Conduct“ “Az“ there is “VA“...“ In total such warehouses in Russian there are about two hundred.
the Warehouse can consist of the concordant and a vowel, of the concordant and a hard or soft sign or of one letter. With two hundred phonemes would be it is not simpler to cope, than with 33 letters, but in 1989 “Zaytsev`s Cubes“ which turn reading on warehouses into game were let out.
the Magnetic alphabet. by means of capital letters can leave each other messages on the refrigerator or a special board.
Magic screen. is ideally suited for the first krivenky “And“ and “B“: if something does not turn out, it is possible to erase written without problems and to begin anew.
of the Word - puzzles. Can consist of two - three parts. The child at the same time collects the word and the corresponding picture.
warehouses on sides of 46 cubes differing on color and other properties. These distinctions help children to feel a difference between public and concordant, ringing and soft sounds. Using warehouses, the kid makes words. Thus, unlike a syllabic technique, “cat“ will be read not “cat“, and “to - sh -“. Zaytsev believes that this more natural combination. The important advantage of its technique is that it is tied on game. To comprehend reading science by Zaytsev`s method, to children to move, sing, knock, clap, to dance - different warehouses are so best of all remembered.
did not do Without shortcomings. In - the first, the technique was formed because of English in which there are more short words. Besides, in English there is practically no inducement and conjugations. For this reason Russian-speaking parents face that the child who was remembered the word “table“ as whole cannot identify the word “table“ - from the point of view of the kid, it is already perfect other bukvoobrazovaniye.
Zaytsev considers that it is possible to train in reading since two years, but only provided that the child himself reaches for game. And experience of the parents using cubes shows that children really learn to read, and before peers.
the Main dirty trick which is seen in cubes by opponents of a method consists that at the two-year-old child reading will hardly be intelligent process, and at this age it is more important to master other practical skills.Doman`s Technique suggests to begin
according to Doman with
with larger language units - words and to start reading already in half a year from a sort! And it is only part of the volume program for acquisition by the child of encyclopedic knowledge which Doman began to develop in 40 - x years of the last century. The technique is based on features of work of a brain of babies. For consecutive reading on letters or syllables the kid lacks attention. But if to show it integral words on bright posters, he will remember them completely as one difficult symbol. For example, 7 - to the monthly child several seconds show the picture with the word “mother“ and loudly pronounce this word, and then feed the kid to support his interest. Of course, to check whether babies remember something, it is impossible also Doman and does not advise to try. When the kid grows up, it will be possible to ask to put him a card with the learned word on the corresponding picture.
Olga, Zelenograd >
“Acquaintances gave to br the child to study on Zaytsev`s cubes in group, drove two years. The effect was stunning : the girl not only did not learn to read, but also began to hate study“.
Ekaterina, Moscow >
“Daughters I at first showed to br letters, drawing them on the earth, on snow and on paper. Then used the magnetic alphabet. Wrote it notes with instructions as well as where to find a surprise. Now she with pleasure reads“.
“At us is Abc-book from the cradle Domana. At first I read responses, lit up. But the child in any does not want to be engaged, does not show the slightest interest. I also do not force. This set cost about three thousand rubles, in vain only money was thrown out“.
“My girl it became quickly boring to learn letters and words by cards, and I spent so much time for their production. But then reached me that there is other way. I began to print words on the computer and to read them by the voice. Recently the daughter herself read me several words, and she is only 2 years old“.
Doman demands accuracy in details. Cards have to be a certain area, a letter - a certain height, and lessons - are regular, it is desirable also that they passed in one and too time of day. Will gradually reach also stories about dates of Trafalgar fight and habitats of a panda. Frankly speaking, it is simpler to buy posters, than to make most. The price is rather big, but production of such set by own efforts will take you not less than a week. Very much labor-intensive process and to confuse something as easy as shelling pears.
In - the second, this technique leans on the touch period of development when the child really immediately and in improbable volume acquires everything that teach it. According to psychologists, a problem that at infantile age it is much more important to child to give tactile information, to help to develop the physical world around that with already saved up experience it could pass to development of the intellectual sphere. Without a certain baggage of impressions and knowledge reading is absolutely deprived of sense. There are data that at the kids who were engaged on Doman`s system, after a while development was slowed down.to
However, this technique is really useful to children with problems of nervous system, - that Doman also began the developments with them. Besides, training in “the whole words“ can be useful if the kid badly perceives abstractness of letters. Scientists consider that reading imitation (according to the subject picture, according to the hint of the adult) will lead the child to desire to read really.to Read
in every possible way
Exist also other ways to learn to read. For example, the method of the whole text is used. The child who already mastered the first skills of process is given the fascinating book. Meeting unknown words, he independently has to guess that they mean, on a context or according to pictures. The method purpose - to make reading entertaining. Here do not pay attention to literacy and accents, and the kid understands communication between letters and sounds itself, in process of reading. The advantage of this way is that it develops language intuition, including at learning of foreign language. But, unlike a method of the whole text, classical reading on phonemes (on letters, on syllables and warehouses) can create rather at the child so-called “congenital literacy“.
“My five-year-old daughter hardly puts letters in syllables. Honestly tried to be engaged with it in reading, but every time business came to an end with tears, and I lagged behind it. At school will learn“.
“I taught the son to read Krasnogorsk to br in the old manner. Explained letters and syllables, and then gave the children`s book. Week he bekat and said hum and ha, and then business went. Now to it 5, and he reads just perfectly“.
the Famous teacher Maria Montessori did not encourage children to reading specially, and just turned letters into toys. She made models of letters different to the touch and distributed them to kids. While children played “lodges“ and “engines“, Maria told them as this or that letter is called. Over time her pupils independently learned to fold them in words, and words in offers.
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