Language barrier of
Some parents do not see anything terrible that their kid “burrs“ or “lisps“, the main thing - that grew healthy and well ate, they consider. But subsequently such children become frequent “guests“ of psychologists, logopedists and other experts. The matter is that harmless at first sight speech shortcomings can seriously be reflected in further development of the child.
Not the fyfka, but fyfka!
Violation of a sound pronunciation - not only cosmetic defect, but also a notable obstacle in mastering written language. Let`s present that the kid indistinctly utters only one sound [Z]. In 90% of cases if it is not caused by the mechanical reasons (a short bridle, the wrong structure of language, etc.) it also does not distinguish this sound from similar aurally and can confuse [Z] with [With], [Sh] and some other. The child grows up, goes to school, and his speech violation becomes almost or at all imperceptible. It would seem, everything is good, but not here - that was. From - for not distinctions of sounds (logopedists call it violation of phonemic hearing) the newly made pupil can write “dew“ instead of “rose“, “voice“ instead of “eyes“. And no additional classes and cramming of rules will help here. And here the skilled logopedist at once will understand that he all these student`s difficulties - consequences of the sound pronunciation broken in the childhood, and will develop then the correctional program aimed at the development of phonemic hearing and speech attention.
Happens that children confuse letters, not only the designating similar sounds, but also relatives on a tracing. So, the above described pupil can mix the letters Z and V having the general graphic element. Occupations with the logopedist will help such child to develop optics - spatial representations (orientation on a sheet of paper, visual perception) and to overcome mistakes.to
So, it is obvious that violations of the speech even if at first sight insignificant, threaten mastering the diploma and successful training. Not to mention that they negatively influence an emotional condition of the kid, his communication with peers, a self-assessment.
the Correction of mistakes
What to do if you noticed at the child an indistinct pronunciation or lack of sounds, “proglatyvaniye“ of the terminations of words or other speech mistakes? First of all, not to panic. According to scientific researches, about 40% of the children who do not have neurologic or otolaryngologic pathology incorrectly say sounds of the native language. Nevertheless it is worth showing the kid to the expert everything-. It is possible to visit the logopedist in kindergarten, in policlinic or in it is advisory - the diagnostic center (KDTs). The doctor will ask you on features of a course of pregnancy and childbirth, stages of development of the child, and also will take an interest in the conclusions of the neurologist, otolaryngologist and pediatrician. On primary consultation the logopedist will carry out diagnostics of all components of speech system: will check a pronunciation of sounds, phonemic hearing, structure of the word, a condition of the dictionary, a grammatical system of the speech (ability is correct to make phrases and offers) and skills of retelling. Besides, he will examine the articulation device of the child, his mobility, a structure and motility and only after that will make the diagnosis. It can be violation only of some components of the speech, for example a sound pronunciation and phonemic hearing, or all components at once (such problems are called system and arise, as a rule, because of serious neurologic pathology).
After statement of the diagnosis the logopedist will make the correctional program for your child. Usually it includes individual occupations, logopedic massage and improving procedures.
Work with the doctor is not limited to correction of the speech. Occupations include games and exercises on development of the highest mental functions (memory, attention, thinking, imagination), development of the motive device and grafomotorny skills in preschool children (with school students conduct lessons of the letter and readings). A lot of things depend also on parents: at a stage of automation (fixing) of sounds it is necessary to be engaged with the child independently! You can see off and sessions of articulation gymnastics is a complex of special exercises for development of the correct sounds (see the Practical work).
Can happen so that the logopedist will recommend to the kid to visit a specialized kindergarten and will direct you to the psychologist - the physician - the pedagogical commission where will specify the diagnosis and will channelize. Let you be not frightened at all by names of establishments and scary words in medical certificates. Think that it is better to take away the child in a garden of the compensating type now and to manage to correct speech violation to school age.
What violations of the speech are allocated by modern logopedists and that they mean
of Violation of one or several components of the speech (kindergartens use the diagnosis of FFN - phonetics - a phonemic underdevelopment of the speech).
of Dislaliya - violation of a sound pronunciation at normal hearing and lack of neurologic defects of organs of articulation. Often at this disease also the phonemic hearing suffers. Dislaliya is mechanical (when violation is caused by anomalies in a structure of organs of articulation) and functional, and also difficult (several groups of sounds) and idle time (1 sound or sounds of one group).
of Dizartriya - violation of a sound pronunciation and problem with reproduction of the speech (a voice, speed, a melodics, intonation, smoothness), caused by insufficient receipt of nervous impulses in muscles. It is difficult for child to pronounce sounds and words because mobility of his language, lips, cheeks is limited. Dizartriya always develops against organic defeat of nervous system - patrimonial or pre-natal injuries and consequences of the diseases postponed at early age (meningitis, encephalitis), cerebral spastic infantile paralysis. Most often the so-called erased dizartriya form, i.e. the minimum manifestations of violation meets at very poorly expressed, and even unspecified neurologic pathology. It is important that the logopedist carried out differential diagnostics and appointed adequate correction.the Practical work
Logopedists almost always appoint
of Exercise on an extension of a hypoglossal bridle
Wide language to prisosat br to the sky. To reveal Roth as it is possible more widely so that the bridle stretched.
the Wide paste language to the sky. As much as possible to open a mouth, without tearing off language from the sky. Then to click language.
of Exercise for language
Wide tongue to put out, weaken, put on a lower lip. To watch that it did not shiver and did not deviate. > the Needle
Roth to slightly open br. Narrow, intense to put out tongue forward as it is possible further. > the Watch
to Put out br narrow tongue and to move it to the right - to the left, without cleaning it deep into. > the Swing
to Put out br narrow tongue and to try to reach them a nose and a chin alternately. Not to close companies.
to Slightly open a mouth. As much as possible to push narrow language forward and to clean in depth of a mouth. > the Sail
it is wide to br to open for Roth. To lift narrow language up and to concern it hillocks (alveoluses) behind upper teeth.
of Exercise for lips
the Tubule - an ulybochka
to Extend lips in a tubule and to smile broadly (with the closed mouth).
the Small fence
to Close teeth, to smile broadly (not to disconnect teeth).
of Rinolaliya - the violation of a sound pronunciation and rechevosproizvedeniye caused by anomalies in a structure of organs of articulation (a crevice of a soft and hard palate or a lip). Rinolaliya demands surgery, and then careful logopedic work. If the pronunciation is corrected, and remains only nasal (“in a nose“) a voice timbre, such violation is called a rinofoniya.
System violations of the speech, or GUS (general underdevelopment of the speech). > In this case to the child it is difficult for strong to say sounds, it passes or rearranges in places syllables, his lexicon is poor, offers are not agreed, and the independent speech is limited. System violations arise not in itself, and, but a dizartriya, because of organic defeat of nervous system, not nerves, and directly the sites of a cerebral cortex which are responsible for speech function are only surprised.
of Alaliya - a speech underdevelopment. Arises owing to immaturity of cages in certain sites of a cerebral cortex. It is important to logopedist to delimit an alaliya from a delay of speech development.
Aphasia - disintegration of the speech, arises at adults and children after 3 years as a result of organic defeat of cells of a brain (as a rule, from - for injuries and the postponed diseases).Separately logopedists allocate to
stutter and a delay of speech development
the Delay of speech development - the resistant delay of speech development, but not the variability of terms of emergence of sounds depending on specific features of the child means.
Stutter - speed violation - the rhythmic organization of the speech, characterized by convulsive halts. Often results from a mental trauma or an overstrain.